'Marxist-Leninist Angola and Moçambique embraced market-economy principles'. Onwudiwe
This is true but we should note that they also were made to swallow the bitter pill of market fundamentalism.
though IMF and World Bank conditionalities. Mozambique's cashew industry collapsed and it found itself sinking
 deeper into the mire of dependence.
I do agree with Professor Onwudiwe, though, that there is need for optimism.Africa's resources are vast.
Almost every single lap top produced in the world today has an African component in the form of coltan.
 Its oil resources are expanding with the discovery of vast oil reserves in Central Africa and East Africa.
Africa's uranium was incorrectly brought into the 'Invade Iraq' debate, but,  the fact is that there are really
vast uranium resources which can be harnessed for energy generation at some time in the future-  
when the politics of nuclear generation becomes less controversial and hostile.
Petroleum, coltan, diamonds, cobalt, titanium and the key industrial materials are in Africa's backyard.
That's a plus. The challenge though is to navigate one's way through the perilous waters of  intrigue and
western self interest.We cannot be overwhlemed by the challenges. Onwudiwe is right but  we must match
our optimism with some hard core strategies and programs that would move us forward. I sincerely appreciate
Onwudike's discussion of  Africa's innovations in federalism and political culture.
Dr. Gloria Emeagwali
Professor of History- African Studies/
Founding Director of African Studies at Central Connecticut State University/
Chief Editor of Africa Update, a newsletter of African Studies