Republic of Botswana (1/7/05)
TAUTONA TIMES no 23 of 2005
The Weekly Electronic Press Circular of the Office of the President
"As a policy matter, collective bargaining is the preferred means by
which, in full autonomy, employers on the one hand and workers and
their representatives on the other hand, should together establish
working conditions and terms of employment. While government will
continue to play its role in determining minimum terms and conditions
of employment at work, the legislation promotes free collective
bargaining not only as a means of fixed terms and conditions of
employment beyond the minimum provisions, but also as a mechanism
through which employers and workers exchange views and resolve
differences of opinion on a wide variety of issues through a process
of dialogue" - H.H. the Vice President [D]
A. Sir Seretse Khama's Vision
B. Public Press Schedule for July
C. The Week That Was
D. Address by H.H. the Vice President Opening a Conference examining
Botswana's New Labour Laws" (28/6/05)
E. Press Office Forwarding:
1) President Mogae Returns from Mozambique Celebration (26/6/05)
2) Response to SABC Report "Crisis hits Botswana Bank" (27/6/05)
3) Dr. Justice Athaliah Molokomme to be Attorney General (28/6/05)
4) Botswana Cricket elevated (28/6/05)
5) Profile of the late first President Sir Seretse Khama (28/6/05)
6) Additional notes and forwarding
F. Botswana in the Global Media during June 2005
A. Remembering Sir Seretse Khama
Today's edition coincides with the annual Sir Seretse Khama Day
Holiday, which honours Botswana's late first President. A brief
profile of his life appears below [E 5]. For this author the ultimate
quality of Sir Seretse's statesmanship rested in his enduring vision
about what Batswana could achieve if they were free to fulfil their
own independent destiny.
Some have argued that Seretse Khama's emergence as a nationalist
leader was reactive insofar as his political party - the Democratic
Party (BDP) - only began to take shape in September 1961, months
after the launch of the rival People's Party (BPP). The chronology is
indisputable, but it does not tell the whole story.
Evidence of Khama's earlier national vision can be found in his
actions after his return from involuntary exile, such as his
opposition to the proposal that Botswana join the British ruled,
white settler dominated, Central African Federation.
The Federation, which at the time incorporated what are today Malawi,
Zambia and Zimbabwe, was then being sold to the international
community as a model of multi-racial partnership. But, its first
Prime Minister, Lord Malvern, famously gave the game away when he
characterised race relations in the Federation as being like that
between "the horse and the rider."
A few prominent Batswana were, nonetheless, initially attracted to
the Federation, as a possible shield against the Pretoria regime's
aggressive desire to have Botswana become part of their blueprint for
"Grand Apartheid". As in South Africa proper, Apartheid's architects
envisioned Botswana being re-divided between black tribal reserves,
which would all become part of a "Tswana Homeland" that would also
include patches of land in South Africa proper, and expanded white
settler areas. In this context, so-called "Bushmen" who were said to
be squatting in white farming zones were also to be pushed into more
arid parts of the Central Kgalagadi.
In his inaugural, April 1958, address to the Joint Advisory Council,
Seretse Khama called on all the people living in Botswana, including
the settler minority, to "think outside of the box":
"I think it is time that we ourselves in Bechuanaland, who neither
belong to the Union of South Africa nor the Federation, or any other
part as far as I can see, except Great Britain, should formulate a
policy of our own which is probably unique to us. And that is a
policy, perhaps, of even teaching those countries who profess to be
more advanced than ourselves, that in as far as administration and
race relationships are concerned they have more to learn from us than
we from them.
"I must say, quite frankly that I have been rather disturbed to find
that on the whole there is a tendency to look always over our
shoulders. Perhaps I am wrong, if so I stand corrected. We want to
see what is happening elsewhere instead of getting on with what we
know is peculiar to us and to the country itself. We should get on
and have no fear that we may incur someone's displeasure,...And if we
are right, I am afraid emotion must come into this, we should not
bother very much with what anyone might say. We have ample
opportunity in this country to teach people how human beings can live
together." - Dr. Jeff Ramsay, Press Secretary to the President
Contacts: Office Telephone: (267)03975154 & Facsimile: (267)3902795.
Cell: (267)71318598. E-mail: email@example.com.
B. July Press Schedule:
As always the events listed below, which represent only those parts
of H.E. the President's schedule open in whole or part to press
coverage, are subject to change. When possible and necessary, updates
will be forwarded. Members of the Press are also encouraged to
contact the sponsors of the various events listed below for further
programme details and possible updates.
Sunday (3/7/05): In the morning, at 8:00 AM, H.E. the President will
depart for Sirte, Libya, where he will attend the 5th Ordinary
Session of the Assembly of the African Union.
Tuesday (5/7/05): In the morning, from 8:30 AM, His Honour the Vice
President (and Acting President), Lt. Gen. Seretse Khama Ian Khama,
will Officially Open the 12th gathering of the Pan African
Association of Archaeology and related Studies at the University of
Wednesday (6/7/05): In the late afternoon, at 17:00, H.E. the
President is expected return from the A.U. Summit
Saturday (16/7/05) - Tuesday (19/7/05): H.E. the President will
attend and address the National Congress of the ruling Botswana
Democratic Party in Serowe.
Monday (18/7/05): In the morning, from 10:00 AM, H.E. the President
will further attend the annual President's Day celebrations, which
will be held this year in Kasane.
Sunday (24/7/05) -Wednesday (27/7/05): H.E. the President is
scheduled to give the keynote address at the International AIDS
Society AIDS Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He will thereafter
have a two day Working Visit before returning home.
Friday (29/7/05): In the evening, from 19:30, H.E. the President will
attend the UB Foundation Fundraising Dinner.
C. OP Press Highlights for the week ending Saturday 1/7/05:
Tuesday (28/6/05): In the morning, at 10:00 am, H.E. the President
gave an exclusive interview to BBC World Business Report.
Also during the morning H.H. the Vice President delivered the Opening
Address at a Conference on Botswana's Labour Laws [D].
Friday (1/7/05): Sir Seretse Khama Day Public Holiday - during the
afternoon H.E. the President gave an exclusive interview to the BBC2
television programme "Newsnight", which is also expected to be
broadcast on the BBC World. Thereafter he went to the National
Stadium to attend in the 10th annual Orange Kabelano Trust Charity
Spectacular, which culminated in a football match between Botswana's
Zebras and the Simbas of the Democratic Republic of Congo, which
ended in a draw.
D. ADDRESS BY HIS HONOUR THE VICE PRESIDENT LT. GENERAL SERETSE KHAMA
IAN KHAMA, AT THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE "UNLOCKING THE MYSTERIES
OF BOTSWANA'S NEW LABOUR LAW", GABORONE (28/6/05)
Director of Ceremonies
Judge President Legwaila and other judges of the Industrial Court
Distinguished Guests Ladies and Gentlemen
1. It is a pleasure for me to join you this morning at this
Conference, convened to discuss what has been termed Botswana's 'new
2. The changes to Botswana's labour laws, as most of you are
aware, were effected by a series of amendments to key labour statutes
recently brought into operation. This legislative package included
the enactment of a new Trade Disputes Act, and significant amendments
to the Trade Unions and Employers' Organisations Act.
3. These amendments were intended, partially at least, to bring
labour laws in Botswana fully into compliance with relevant
international labour standards. From as far back as 1990, the
Government had adopted a policy of reviewing labour legislation with
a view to strengthen collective bargaining and the development of
Trade Unions. Ratification of a number of conventions in 1997
including the core Conventions on the right to organize and bargain
collectively was in part implementation of the policy. Since then,
government has embarked on a programme to give effect to its
4. This has been a long process, but one in which government has
been concerned to secure the fullest possible consensus between the
social partners- business and labour- on the proposed changes, and to
ensure that as far as possible, the necessary infrastructure was
created to ensure the smooth implementation of the new laws.
5. The international standards to which I have referred
represent the fundamental rights necessary in any modern society to
ensure social stability and economic progress, both within States and
6. This is particularly so in the Southern African community,
where international labour standards have formed the basis of recent
labour law reforms throughout the region. While these reforms
acknowledge the social dimension of globalisation and the
universality of certain labour rights, they also acknowledge the
economic and social interdependence of the various nations in our
region, and they reaffirm the principle that fundamental labour
rights must be secured if economic and social progress is to be made.
This process of reform has resulted in closer harmonization of
employment laws within SADC than ever before, and will ensure that
fair labour standards prevail throughout the region, and that the
rights of employers and employees respectively will be safeguarded.
7. Let me restate for the record that labour laws in Botswana
recognize the fundamental right of employers and employees to join
organizations of their own choosing, to bargain collectively, and to
establish conditions where the free exercise of those rights are
8. As a policy matter, collective bargaining is the preferred
means by which, in full autonomy, employers on the one hand and
workers and their representatives on the other hand, should together
establish working conditions and terms of employment. While
government will continue to play its role in determining minimum
terms and conditions of employment at work, the legislation promotes
free collective bargaining not only as a means of fixed terms and
conditions of employment beyond the minimum provisions, but also as a
mechanism through which employers and workers exchange views and
resolve differences of opinion on a wide variety of issues through a
process of dialogue.
9. It is evident that one is acknowledging that conflict is
inherent in and a reality of the employment relationship. More
importantly however, this conflict is best dealt with within the
confines of that relationship. Where the parties are unable
themselves to successfully resolve disputes, the legislation creates
a system of dispute resolution aimed primarily at assisting parties
to resolve their own disputes with the help of third parties.
Mediation and conciliation are accorded primacy by the legislation as
the means by which disputes might be resolved, and comparative
experience suggest that timeous and skillful intervention by a
neutral third party can contribute significantly to reducing levels
of industrial conflict.
10. Another important point to be made in this respect is that
the overhaul of the statutory dispute system is intended to ensure
expeditious access by both employers and employees to an efficient
and inexpensive system of dispute resolution. I am aware of
difficulties being experienced in the implementation of the new
system, and the delays that have occurred as a consequence. The
Government will continue to address these hindrances in order that
the system operates as was intended. Considerable resources will be
needed in order to achieve this.
11. Regrettably, it is a fact of life that parties to an
employment relationship will not always be able to resolve their
differences, and that on occasion, they may need to resort to
industrial action to pursue their demands. The legislation
recognises the legitimacy of industrial action, both by employers and
employees, and entrenches the rights to strike and to lock out
12. As with all rights, neither of these rights is absolute, and
must yield to competing rights when this is necessary. The
legislation achieves this by limiting the issues that might be the
subject of industrial action by requiring a meaningful attempt at
resolving the dispute giving rise to the action, and by protecting
the interests of third parties affected, for example, by disputes
involving essential services employees.
13. It has always been the view of the Government that the right to
resort to industrial action is a right that must be exercised with
caution, and with due regard to the damage that it is capable of
inflicting not only on the parties to the dispute concerned, but also
on the broader society. This is particularly so in those sectors on
which Botswana is dependent for its economic well-being. The more
expansive rights that have been extended to employers and employees
by the new legislation demand a corresponding sense of responsibility
from both parties.
14. The model of labour relations that is promoted by the
legislation is not one of hostility and unnecessary conflict. It is
a model that promotes co-operation and partnership, and the
recognition that the relationship between employers and employees is
ultimately one of interdependency. If either employers or employees,
simply for short-term gain, exploit unwisely the rights established
by the new legislation, the goals of the new labour law will not have
been achieved. The institution of collective bargaining is intended
to guarantee serious and committed engagement, and outcomes that
account for the interests of both parties. This is the best
guarantee of industrial peace, which in itself is a basis for
sustainable economic progress.
15. The new labour laws reaffirm the significance of tripartism.
This recognition finds expression in a number of structures such as
the Labour Advisory Board and the Minimum Wage Advisory Board on
which government, employers and employees are represented. These
Boards are appointed primarily to advise the Minister of Labour on
employment related matters. The tripartite nature of the Boards not
only give institutional expression to the principle of tripartism,
but also acknowledges that good labour relations are best achieved by
way of a partnership at national level, between government, business
16. These tripartite structures enable the parties, through a
process of social dialogue, to debate how their respective interests
might relate to the broader challenges of society as a whole. We are
blessed as a nation in that social dialogue has been part of our
tradition and therefore should apply to labour relations.
17. Within a larger context, the emergence of the global
marketplace demands coordinated strategies that enjoy the support of
all of the social partners and which are capable of being translated
into reality. Issues such as poverty, unemployment and the HIV/AIDS
crisis are best dealt with by a shared wisdom, common effort and the
benefit of diverse experience. We need the various structures as
necessary fora where meaningful dialogue should take place.
18. In conclusion, I would like to provide advice to workers and
employers regarding their day-to-day interactions. All workers
should upon taking an offer of employment, be ready to give nothing
less than their best. This is with respect to attitude, dedication
and quality. To do otherwise is to breed a spirit of mediocrity all
19. To employers, both big and small, you are challenged
managerially. A large portion of discontent and complaints amongst
workers arises from lack of communication on matters which affect
workers. Unlike tools, human beings must be involved, and unlike
tools, an investment in the person of whatever nature has a greater
multiplier effect. You do not have to be unionised to have fair
internal procedures for grievance handling. I challenge you to put
out the small fires.
20. I wish you every success as you seek adoption of the new
labour law in Botswana, and trust that your deliberations will be
fruitful. I thank you.
E. OP Press Office Forwarding:
E 1) 26/6/05: President Mogae returns from attending the 30th
Anniversary of the Independence of Mozambique:
This morning (Sunday 26/7/05, 10:00 AM), President Mogae returned to
Gaborone from Maputo, where he was among the dignitaries who attended
Saturday's the 30th Anniversary of Mozambican Independence
Among those accompanying the President were his Permanent Secretary,
Mr. Eric Molale, the Commander of the Botswana Defence Force, Lt.
Gen. Fisher, and two Members of Parliament, Mr. Samson Moyo Guma of
the ruling party and Mr. Olebile Gaborone of the opposition Botswana
Also in attendance were Presidents Benjamin Mkapa of Tanzania,
Hifikepunye Pohamba of Namibia and the newly installed South African
Deputy President, Phumzile Mlamo-Ngcuka.
The day began with the visiting Presidents and other guests joining
their host, Mozambican President Armando Emilio Guebuza, along with a
crowd of several thousand Mozambicans, at Maputo's Heroes Square.
There they paid tribute to those who had fallen during the country's
hard fought liberation struggle.
In his address Mozambican President Guebuza praised his immediate
predecessor the former Mozambican President Joachim Chissano for
promoting nation unity and economic development, after first bringing
peace to the country. As a result, he noted that, over the past five
years, the rate of poverty had dropped from 69 to 54%, while there
had been increased the provision of social services such as health
and education as well as expanding the water supply.
Earlier President Mogae congratulated President Guebuza on his
nation's progress, noting:
"We are happy that today the Government and people of Mozambique are
actively engaged in tackling the challenges of improving the human
Mogae went on to reiterate Botswana's commitment to working with
Mozambique within the framework of the Southern African Development
Community (SADC) to promote greater economic co-operation and
intensified regional integration. Mogae also observed that:
"The independence of Mozambique occupies an important place in the
annals of the liberation of Southern Africa. The gallant people of
Mozambique fought against the oldest and most brutal colonial regime
in Africa and succeeded. This victory ended the myth that there could
never be freedom, democracy and majority rule in our region. Your
Independence was a powerful inspiration to the oppressed people in
the rest of Southern Africa to intensify their struggles for freedom."
E 2) 27/6/05: Letter to SABC Web Editor w/ Response: Re: Your report
"Crisis hits Botswana bank"
The above report, as posted on your website, is grossly misleading.
While it is true that the Bank of Botswana has intervened in the
management of the Kingdom Bank Africa Ltd. in accordance with the
provisions of the Botswana Banking Act it is certainly not accurate
to say that the said Bank is "one of the most important banks in
It is in fact a branch of a Zimbabwean financial institution that
recently established itself in the local financial services sector.
In this respect the Bank employs only a handful of people in
Botswana, not the 22,000 people implied in your article. The
potential impact of any disruption of its services on our economy
would thus be modest in scope.
For any further details we would urge you to consult with the Bank of Botswana.
Hello Dr Ramsay
I've taken note of your concerns and made some changes to the story -
EP, New Media, SABC
E 3) 28/6/05: Dr. Justice Athaliah Lesiba Molokomme to be next
This is to inform the public that the Permanent Secretary to the
President, Mr. Eric Molale, is pleased to announce that Dr. Athaliah
Molokomme, who is currently serving as a Justice on the High Court,
has been offered and accepted appointment to the post of Attorney
General. Her appointment will take effect from the 1st of October
2005, at which time the current Attorney General, Mr. Ian Kirby will
Justice Molokomme is well known in Botswana as a legal activist as
well as scholar. In her letter of acceptance she expressed her
gratitude to His Excellency the President for providing her with an
opportunity "to serve Botswana in this most challenging position"
It is understood that Justice Molokomme will complete her part heard
cases prior to assuming her new post.
E 4) 28/6/05: Botswana elevated by the International Cricket Council
(ICC) associate member status:
Botswana was one of five countries elevated to associate member
status by the International Cricket Council (ICC) at its annual
conference at Lord's, England, today. Also elevated were Japan,
Kuwait, Belgium and Thailand.
Associate members who rank above affiliate and below full membership
are eligible to compete in qualifiers for the Cricket world Cup,
which will next be held in 2007 in the West Indies. As from today the
ICC now has 10 full, 32 associate and 54 affiliate full members.
E 5) 28/7/05: For Sir Seretse Khama Day Holiday this Friday:
Profile of the late Sir Seretse Khama, NYB, KBE, LLD, D.LITT, PHD,
MP, First President of the Republic of Botswana (30/9/66 -13/7/80)
The late Sir Seretse Khama was the first President of the Republic of
Botswana. He inherited an impoverished and internationally obscure
state from British rule, and left it as a democratic and increasingly
prosperous nation with a significant role in Southern Africa.
Seretse Khama was born on the 1st of July 1921 at Serowe in what was
then the Bangwato Tribal Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate. He
was the son and heir Sekgoma Khama and Tebogo (nee Kebailele). In
1923 his father succeeded his grandfather as the Kgosi or ruler of
the Bangwato. His reign, as Kgosi Sekgoma II was, however, short as
he died in 1925. With the death of his mother, in 1930, Seretse
remained in the care of his uncle Tshekedi Khama, who ruled the
Bangwato as his regent
Seretse received his higher primary and secondary education in South
Africa, at two prominent mission schools, Lovedale and Tiger Kloof,
before earning a Bachelor of Arts degree at Fort Hare College.
Thereafter he studied law at the University of Witwatersrand and
Balloil College, Oxford, before taking up further Barrister Studies
at Inner Temple in London.
In June 1947, while in London, Seretse first met Ruth Williams, who
was then pursuing a career in the financial sector. Their interracial
marriage in September 1948 ultimately threw the British Empire into
turmoil. Initially it was uncle, Tshekedi, who ordered Seretse home
to demand a divorce. But, after a series of public meetings in
Serowe, Seretse was popularly recognised as Kgosi together with his
wife. Tshekedi then gave way and went into self-exile.
The proclamation of a black chief with a white wife, in a territory
strategically located between South Africa and the Rhodesias, caused
outcry among white settler politicians. South Africa had come under
the control of white Afrikaner nationalists in 1948. The then Labour
Party government in Britain was desperate to secure its economic as
well as political ties with the new apartheid regime. It therefore
quietly agreed to bar Seretse Khama from chieftainship.
A judicial enquiry was set up to try to prove Seretse's personal
unfitness to rule. But, instead it concluded that Seretse was
eminently fit to rule. The Commission's report was therefore
suppressed by the British government, while Seretse and his wife were
exiled to England.
The persecution of Seretse and Ruth Khama received extensive
international press coverage and outrage was expressed by a wide
range of people around the world. Eventually, in 1956, the British
finally allowed Seretse and Ruth to return to Botswana as private
citizens. What the London authorities had not expected was the
political acclaim that six years exile had given him back home, where
Seretse Khama was acclaimed as a nationalist hero.
>From 1957-62 Seretse Khama was involved in the reform of local and
>territorial Government leading to the establishment of a Legislative
>Council as key steps towards decolonisation. In 1962 he founded the
>Bechuanaland Democratic Party (BDP). With its call for reform
>leading to a non-racial independent republic the BDP was able to
>draw overwhelming support. It won the first universal franchise
>elections in March 1965, allowing Seretse Khama became the first
>prime minister of a self-governing Bechuanaland Protectorate before
>leading the country to full independence a year later.
At independence Botswana was entirely surrounded by white racist
regimes. It was, therefore, widely but falsely assumed that the
country had no option but to sell-out to its neighbours, South Africa
(including South-West Africa) and Southern Rhodesia.
The new government, moreover, could not cover the costs of
administration from taxes, and was continually indebted to Britain.
The first task was to lay the groundwork for an export-oriented
economy, based on beef processing and copper and diamond mining.
Between 1966 and 1980 Botswana had the fastest growing economy in the
world. It also came to be seen a remarkable state with high
principles, upholding liberal democracy and non-racialism in the
midst of a region embroiled in civil war, racial enmity and
corruption. State mineral revenues were invested in infrastructural
development, education and health, and in subsidies to cattle
production. The result was a great increase in general prosperity, in
rural as well as urban areas.
Seretse Khama also used his unique authority to develop local
democracy and curtail the powers of traditional chiefs, to develop
citizen administrative capacity without over-bureaucratization, and
to promote the rule of law in the operations of the state.
As Botswana progressed, Seretse Khama was also able to turn more of
his attention to foreign policy, finding key early allies in
Presidents Kaunda of Zambia Nyerere of Tanzania. In his final decade
he played and increasingly prominent role as a Pan African statesman.
He was one of the "Front-Line Presidents" who negotiated the future
of Zimbabwe and Namibia.
In the face of the terrorist activities of the Smith regime in
particular, the Botswana Defence Force was created to guard
Botswana's borders, protecting growing numbers of refugees as well as
During this period Seretse Khama articulated a clear vision of the
future of Southern Africa after colonialism and apartheid, as a
peaceful, democratic and prosperous region. He was thus the key
founder of what has since become the Southern African Development
The rigours of constant travel for international negotiations,
leading up to the independence of Zimbabwe, finally exhausted Seretse
Khama. But he had the final satisfaction of witnessing both the
independence of Zimbabwe in March 1980 and the launching of the
Southern African Development Coordination Conference in April, before
his death on the 13th July 1980.
Khama is fondly remembered for his intelligence, integrity, and sense
of humour. Of his lasting legacy it can said that the perpetual
democracy, socio-economic development, political stability and unity
that Batswana experience today are what Sir Seretse Khama always
E 6) Additional notices and forwarding from 27/6/05 - 1/7/05:
* 28/6/05: "African Safari Expert says Botswana is the Top Safari
Destination in Southern Africa"
* 29/6/05: "A very Positive View of Africa"
F. Botswana in the Global Media in June 2005
F 1) Global on line news reports about Botswana during the month of
June, along with May, 2005.
Note: The numbers below are approximations and do not include all on
line news reports, but rather those recent, up to 30 day old, stories
that are being listed by major search engines with news categories,
which were consulted for this survey.
Keywords (June 05) - (May 05)
"Botswana" (total) 2860 1850
1) & "AIDS" and/or "HIV" 813 429
2) & "AIDS" & "Pope Benedict" 145 0
3) & "Zimbabwe" 452 272
4) & "Trade" 546 258
5) & "President Mogae" 409 189
6) & "President Bush, White House" 338 53
7) & "Democracy/Good Gov." 423 161
8) & "travel/tourism" 214 146
9) & "football/soccer" 230 135
10) & "Diamonds" 154 125
11) & "Human Development" 149 65
12) & "SADC" 106 64
13) & "Diamonds" & "Dev." 58 41
14) & "elephants" 24 37
15) & "Bushmen" 67 27
16) & "Masire" (former President) 17 25
17) & "McCall Smith" (author) 37 17
18) & "Survival International" 29 1
19) & "Volvo" 73 -
20) & "Global Warming" 63 -
F 2) Principal sources of online news reports about Botswana
appearing on select major search engines for the month of June 2005:
SAPA (RSA) 26
SABC (RSA) 21
News 24 (RSA) 14
Sunday Times (RSA) 11
Independent (RSA) 13
Zim Papers (Zimbabwe) 0
AFP (Agence France Presse) 5
IRIN (UN Info Network) 29
Inter Press Service (IPS) 3
Associated Press (AP) 116
Voice of America 4
Xinhua News (China) 13
Bloomberg International 5
Notes: Approximately 25% of the surveyed on-line reports mentioning
Botswana were sourced directly from either the Botswana Press Agency
(BOPA) or Mmegi. All Mmegi reports, along with another 122 additional
reports, were also distributed by allAfrica.com. A mere 3% of the
stories were from other identified regional, SADC, media sources. The
online editions of the local Botswana Gazette, Midweek Sun and Voice
newspapers continue to not appear on the news search engines
consulted for purposes of this survey.