Republic of Botswana (30/7/05)

TAUTONA TIMES no 26 of 2005
The Weekly Electronic Press Circular of the Office of the President

"In addition, HIV tests were conducted on a
sample population of just over 14,000, which
confirmed an overall national prevalence rate of
17% in the general population aged 18months to 64
years, which is less than many incautious media
reports have continued to suggest." - President
Mogae [D 2]


A. The Voice that mislead
B. Press Schedule
C. The week that was
D. Statements:

1) Opening remarks by H.E. the President at a
Press Conference in Rio de Janeiro (24/7/05)

2) Keynote Address by H.E. the President at the
Official Opening of the International AIDS
Society Conference in Rio de Janeiro (24/7/05)

3) Remarks by H.E. the President and H.E. the
President of Brazil at a luncheon in Brasilia

4) Address by H.H. the Vice President at the
Official Opening of Development Projects at Kanye
Brigades (28/7/05)

E. Press Office Forwarding:

1) Botswana-Brazil Joint Communiqué (26/7/05)

2) Technical Cooperation Agreement between the
Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil
and the Government of the Republic of Botswana

3) Additional notes and forwarding

A. The Voice that mislead

On the front page of its 22/7/05 edition a
leading weekly private newspaper, The Voice,
carried the banner headline "MISSING, Schoolgirl,
15, disappears after BDF soldiers mistakenly pick
her up in hunt for 'illegals'." In its first
paragraph the same tabloid went on to report that:

"A distraught mother is pleading with police to
find her daughter, last seen in the back of a BDF
Land Rover after being picked up as a suspected
illegal immigrant."

The Voice has now admitted that the story was fraudulent, further stating that:

"The report that the girl had gone missing after
being picked up by BDF soldiers in the recent
'clean up' campaign made national headlines and
involved police and immigration officials in a
massive hunt, but was all part of a plot by the
girl to mislead her parents."

Indeed, to this country's serious embarrassment,
authorities on the ground and at high level in
two countries became involved in The Voice's wild
goose chase.

Sadly, in its editorial of yesterday, The Voice
still stubbornly seeks to excuse the inexcusable.
It is accepted that mistakes are a routine fact
of life in journalism. Indeed, it is not unknown
for quality newspapers to have to publish a
different "matter of fact" on each day of a week.
But, there is a difference between inevitable
errors in editorial judgment and outright
professional misconduct. In its opening the
editorial states that:

"In Response to the stinging criticism from
Police PRO Senior Superintendent Mantswe over
last weeks missing girl story we make the
following observations."

The tabloid then proceeds to justify its running
of the story based on the distraught mother's
account, deadline constraints, a feeling that it
might have been true and a public minded desire
to be of help. If that were not enough, in her
own column the editor tries to further absolve
herself with the tired defence "Not true, but

It is notable that having so cited Mr. Mantswe
the newspaper lacked the professional integrity
to inform its readers of exactly what his
"stinging criticism" was. No statement by him
appears in its pages.

The tabloid's bigger sin lies in its original
report's actual text. Nowhere in the said
article, for example, does the word "alleged"
ever appear. Instead, the reader is repeatedly
confronted with unqualified and unequivocal
assertions, such as the supposed victim "was
picked up last Wednesday during the recent 'clean
up' campaign of illegal immigrants conducted by
police and BDF". This notwithstanding the
tabloid's ultimate failure cite a single
eyewitness source for its bold assertions, which
is less surprising given that we now all know
that no such incident ever occurred.

One's curiosity is also aroused by the fact that
the explanations carried in yesterday's edition
of The Voice, which were attributed to the
understandably distraught mother, failed to
account for many of the supposed details
contained in the original article.

There is also a question of motive, given that
The Voice further repeated, as if they were fact,
its original accusations against the police and
BDF in its editorial (22/7/05), as a basis for it
to once more accuse this country's law
enforcement authorities of being guilty of gross
human rights violations. In the said editorial
the tabloid concluded:

"The police and BDF must be held responsible for
their actions, and if God forbid, any harm should
come to the youngster, they will be held to
blame. A full enquiry at the highest level must
be carried out as a matter of urgency to
establish correct procedures during such
operations, and to ensure that an incident like
this never happens again."

We suggest instead that perhaps the time has come
for the Press Council of Botswana to give some
firm procedural guidance to The Voice.

This week both The Voice and Mmegi newspapers
carried a Press Release from the so-called First
People of the Kalahari organisation, in direct
response to section "A" of last week's edition of
this circular, which was entitled "Basarwa (San)
reportedly deny torture allegations."

Misleadingly, The Voice went further by
reproducing the FPK statement verbatim as if it
were the text of its publisher's own weekly

Neither of the two newspapers, nor any other
local periodical for that matter, ever bothered
to actually publish the circular's statement,
which readers may recall shared the findings of
investigators from outside this office who looked
into the allegations originally made by The Voice
and their longstanding friends at Survival
International. In this respect one further notes
that The Voice also never bothered to publish the
Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of
Environment, Wildlife and Tourism's earlier
response to their allegations.

So much for the local Media Code of Ethics'
supposed general standards for the dissemination
of balanced information. Perhaps the time is now
overdue for the Press Council of Botswana to be
empowered with some form of legal authority that
preserves media independence, while also ensuring
some semblance professional standards.

- Dr. Jeff Ramsay, Press Secretary to the President (30/7/05)

Contacts: Office Telephone: (267) 3975154 & Facsimile: (267) 3902795.
Cell: (267) 71318598. E-mail:

B. Press Schedule:

As always the events listed below, which
represent only those parts of H.E. the
President's schedule open in whole or part to
press coverage, are subject to change. When
possible and necessary, updates will be
forwarded. Members of the Press are also
encouraged to contact the sponsors of the various
events listed below for further programme details
and possible updates.

Monday (1/8/05): In the afternoon, at 17:00, at
the Office of the President, the Consul-General
Designate to Cape Town, Mrs. Dorcas Kgosietsile,
will take leave of H.E. the President (photos

Tuesday (2/8/05): In the morning, at 11:00 AM, at
the Office of the President, H.E. the President
will receive a presentation of Gemmere from the
management of Blitz Services (Pty.) Ltd., an
example of young entrepreneurship. In the
afternoon, he will receive a Courtesy Call from
the UNFP Goodwill Ambassador and former Miss
Universe Mpule Kwelagobe.

Wednesday (3/8/05): In the afternoon, at 15:00,
the Ambassador designate to Zimbabwe, Mr.
Pelokgale Seloma, will take leave of H.E. the
President (photos only).

Thursday (4/8/05): In the afternoon, at 15:00,
H.E. the President will receive a farewell call
from H.E. Mr. Cecil Holmes, the High Commissioner
of Zambia.

Saturday (6/8/05): In the morning, from 8:00,
H.E. the President will officially open the new
Mahalapye Magistrates' Court.

Saturday (13/8/05): In the morning, from 9:00 AM,
H.E. the President will take part in the annual
Police Day Celebrations at the National Stadium.

C. OP Press Highlights 23-29/7/05:

Saturday (23/7/05): In the morning, H.E. the
President along with the First Lady Barbara Mogae
and support staff departed aboard OK 1 for Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, arriving in the afternoon.
Unfortunately some other members of the
accompanying delegation who had left earlier to
catch commercial flights via Johannesburg found
themselves detoured and delayed by the South
African Airways strike. These unfortunates, who
included the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation,
Mr. Ernest Mpofu, the NACA Coordinator Mr. Batho
Chris Molomo, and the Hon. Members of Parliament
Mr. Botsalo Ntuane and Mr. Dumelang Saleshando;
along with members of the travelling press were
thus only able to arrive in Brazil on Monday

Sunday (24/7/05): In the late afternoon H.E. the
President took part in a press conference [D 1].
Thereafter, in the evening he delivered the
Keynote Address at the Opening of the 3rd
International Aids Society Conference on HIV
Pathogenesis and Treatment [D 2]. Both of
Sunday's events were webcast by

Monday (25/7/05): During the day H.E. the
President began his Official Visit to Brazil with
a Courtesy Call on the Governor of the State of
Rio de Janeiro, Mrs. Rosangela Rosinha Garotinho
Barros Assed Matheus de Oliveira. He also met
with the Chairperson of Brazil's National
Association of Pharmaceutical Laboratories or
"ALANAC", Mr. Josimar Henrique da Silva. He also
granted an exclusive interview to health
reporters from the BBC World Service.

Tuesday (26/7/05): In the morning H.E. the
President, along with all other members of his
delegation converged in the Brazilian capital,
Brasilia. They thereafter proceeded to the
Palacio do Planalto (Brazil's Office of the
President) for a colourful official welcoming
ceremony, which was immediately followed by
bilateral talks between President Mogae and his
Brazilian counterpart, H.E. Luiz Inancio Lula da
Silva. The talks were immediately followed by the
signing of a Technical Cooperation Agreement
between the two countries [E 2]. In the early
afternoon a luncheon was held in honour of H.E.
the President and the First Lady at the Itamatury
Palace, which is the headquarters of the
Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations, during
which both Presidents spoke [D 3] In the late
afternoon, H.E. the President paid a courtesy
call on the President of Brazil's Supreme Court,
the Hon. Nelson Azevedo Jobim, before returning
in the evening to Rio de Janeiro.

Wednesday (27/7/05): H.E. the President arrived
back at SSK International Airport in the evening.

Thursday (28/7/05): In the morning H.H. the Vice
President Officially Opened Develppemt Projects
at Kanye Brigades [E 4].

Friday (29/7/05): In the morning In the
Ambassador designate to Japan, Mr. Oscar
Motswagae, took leave of H.E. the President. In
the afternoon his schedule included a Courtesy
Call by this year's Miss Stigma Free, Ms. Cynthia
Leshomo. In the evening he attended the annual UB
Foundation Fundraising Dinner, which had as its
speaker the South African Minister of Finance,
the Hon. Trevor Manuel.


D 1) Opening remarks by H.E. the President at an
afternoon Press Conference held in Rio de
Janeiro prior to the Official opening of the 2005
International AIDS Society Conference (24/7/05)

Ladies and Gentlemen

1. Let me begin by saying that that I am
delighted that I am delighted to have been
invited to this very important international
conference in order to share something of our own
experience fighting HIV/AIDS in Botswana.

2. As many of you may be aware my country is
one of the most infected and affected in the
world by the virus. Last year we carried out what
is perhaps the most comprehensive survey ever
undertaken on HIV prevalence in any society,
which confirmed that 17% of our population over
18 months of age is infected with the virus.

3. The same study, which was based on a
sample of over 14,000, out of a total population
of just 1.7 million, has also shown much higher
rates of infection for women and young adults,
peaking at 40% in the 30-34 year old age cohort.
I shall have a bit more to say about these
figures in my opening address later this evening.

4. I would use this occasion, however, to
emphasise to the press and others that 17% is
indeed our national figure, while higher reported
figures are confined to various sub-groups within
the population, such as the much quoted UNAIDS
figure of 37%, which relates to pregnant women.
In this respect our figures our not in
contradiction when understood in their proper

5. The broader, more important, message I am
bringing to this conference is that, after an
admittedly delayed start, in recent years my
country has been coming to grips with the AIDS

6. This has called for significant
behavioural change within our society, as well as
the introduction of proactive programmes of
prevention and treatment on the part of
government and other stakeholders.

7. With regards to treatment we have over
the last two and a half years successfully rolled
out Anti Retroviral (ARV) therapy in line with
our stated commitment to provide universal access
to life saving drugs to all of our people. As of
last month over 47,000 of our people were not
receiving the drugs. What is further encouraging
is that, according to our monitoring, in at least
90% of the cases the patients are using there
treatments on a consistent and appropriate basis.
We are thus close to achieving our original
target of enrolling an estimated 55,000 in need
of ARVs by the end of this year.

8. Finally, I must say our relative success
in providing treatment has been neither cheap nor
easy. In the beginning we encountered many
obstacles in terms of physical and human
resources, as well as popular attitudes. It has
only been through much perseverance on the part
of both ourselves and our international partners
that we are now finally beginning to see some
success where until recently there was much
frustration and despair.

9. I will, of course, speak in a bit more
detail of both our relative success and failures
in my Statement at the opening of this conference
later today. For now I thank you for your

D 2) Keynote Address by H.E. the President at the
Official Opening of the 3rd International AIDS
Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and
Treatment held at Rio de Janeiro (24/7/05)

Director of Ceremony

UN Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS, Mr. Stephen Lewis
The Director of the Brazilian National AIDS Programme, Dr. Pedro Chequer
The President of the International AIDS Society
and Conference Committee Co-Chair, Dr. Helene
Local Conference Co-Chair, Dr. Mauro Schechter
Distinguished Conference Participants of various
disciplines, especially acknowledging the
presence of those present who are living with
Ladies and Gentlemen

1. Let me begin by saying how deeply moved I am
to witness this great gathering. To see so many
intelligent and serious minded men and women come
together in order to share their cutting edge
research on the prevention and treatment of HIV
is a great encouragement.

2. It is also most befitting that this meeting
has been convened in Brazil, given this country's
innovative leadership in addressing the HIV/AIDS

3. I understand that in drawing up the programme
for the next three days, the organisers were
challenged to accommodate over 2000 abstracts
submitted by researchers from across the globe.
As I looked through the draft programme I could
not help but be impressed by the wide range of
findings that will be presented.

4. I believe that so much effort from so many
bright people can not help but move us forward in
our collective struggle against the virus. My
confidence in this respect is reinforced by the
awareness that as scientists you have been
trained to accept a multitude of disappointments
in your quest for solutions to the global
HIV/AIDS crisis. I therefore take your presence
here as a collective testament of your own
infinite hope and determination to better
understand and conquer the most severe pandemic
humanity has faced.

5. I am also encouraged by the fact that the
programme for this conference was drawn up in the
context of the International AIDS Society's
mission to contribute to the control and
management of HIV infection and AIDS through
scientific debate that seeks practical insights.
I am further reassured by this Society's standing
commitment to advocacy, education, and support
for best practices in prevention and care of
HIV/AIDS, as well as its promotion of ethical
conduct in research.

6. This holistic approach has demonstrated to the
broader society that your interest in the
epidemic goes beyond academic and research
pursuits, to take into account the ongoing
suffering caused by this epidemic, particularly
in the poorer parts of our world.

7. In my own country, Botswana, HIV has sadly
become a part of daily life. Our health services
are overburdened with growing patient numbers,
overwhelming the capacity of both our human and
physical infrastructure. Evidence of its
merciless onslaught can be further seen in the
headstones of deceased young adults who are
buried in our expanded graveyards. Our overall
life expectancy has fallen in less than a decade
from 67 to 56.

8. What is less obvious is the effect that the
crisis is having on those who remain: On orphans
with an uncertain future and grandparents forced
back into a parenting role, at a time when their
income and health is declining. On our youth
whose dreams and aspirations are darkened by it's
ever looming shadow.

9. Within the short period we have been
transformed from a society full of hope with a
fast growing economy driving our socio-economic
development, to a nation facing an unprecedented
crisis. Given this reality we had no option but
to respond in an informed and proactive manner.
We therefore appreciate the importance of
understanding the nature and scale of epidemic
and thus the important role that research must
play in informing the development of policies and
interventions necessary for us to overcome the

10. From the early 1990s sentinel surveys among
pregnant women indicated that we had a fast
growing epidemic, further suggesting that over
30% of the 15 - 49 age group might be living with
HIV. These stark findings raised difficult
questions as to whether we were capable of
attempting to provide effective treatment to all
those infected. In the year 2000, when this
option was considered, it was one of the most
difficult decisions we have had to make, due to
then prevailing doubts as to the sustainability
of HIV/AIDS treatment programmes in developing
country settings. But, in the end, my Government
was convinced that the alternative of doing
nothing was neither a practical nor moral

11. As we embarked on this course, we of course
realised that we alone did not have sufficient
capacity. We therefore opened our doors to the
many partners who have joined us in our fight at
all levels. This has included those who are
conducting research that will hopefully come to
benefit not only our society, but others around
the world, in such areas as HIV/AIDS treatment
and patient support, and the search for effective
vaccines. In this respect, fora such as this
provide a useful opportunity for existing
Botswana based researchers to share their

12. While research plays and important role in
our hopes for the future control of the virus, I
am sure that few here would argue that one of our
most pressing needs is for improved access to
life saving anti-retroviral drugs.

13. In Botswana, we took the decision to commit a
significant proportion of scarce resources to
make ARV treatment a reality. Thus, in January
2002 we launched a national ARV programme, which
in the short period since has grown from strength
to strength. By the end of last month 40228 were
receiving treatment, through our public health
facilities, with another 7200 being catered for
by private sector partners. We are therefore
confident that we shall exceed the WHO "3 by 5"
target for Botswana of 55000 people on treatment
by the end of this year.

14. This progress would not have been possible
without the generous assistance of both public
and private donors who have supported our efforts
with the donation of drugs and financial and
technical support.

15. Through collective efforts we are now seeing
anti-retroviral treatment transform the lives of
many of our citizens who had previously lost
hope, returning them to productive lives. It is
thus appropriate that our ARV programme is known
in our national language as "Masa", which
translates as "new dawn".

16. That the ARV programme is having the intended
impact is further reflected by the rise in median
baseline CD4 counts from 50 to 84. Patient
attendance at scheduled follow-ups is now over
90%, while treatment adherence levels are
reported at 86%. While there is undoubtedly still
ground for further improvement, our experience
shows that developing countries can, with
adequate support, successfully distribute ARV
therapy through their public healthcare systems.

17. We also continue to reach out to pregnant
women through our prevention of mother to child
transmission programme in order to reduce the
number of vertical infections in infants.
Coverage over a four year period has reached 60%
of the HIV positive women attending antenatal
clinics throughout the country. But, we shall not
be satisfied with less than 100% coverage.

18. To complement the now routine HIV testing
through our public health system, with the
support of one of our development partners we
have further developed a network of free standing
Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centres. These
have played an important role in improving access
to HIV testing and therefore access to prevention
and care services, to over 150 thousand people.

19. This growth in testing is a welcome
development for we remain convinced that a
prerequisite for halting the spread of the virus
is for everyone to know his or her status. It is
only through such self-knowledge that they can be
truly empowered to either:

* live positively with the virus, accessing
available treatment for themselves while avoiding
behaviour that risks the wellbeing of others, or

* live in such a way as to ensure that their
lives, and those of their loved ones remain virus

20. I here stress what might otherwise seem to be
an obvious point to this esteemed audience in the
conviction that issues surrounding HIV/AIDS
should continue to be addressed in a holistic, as
well as scientific, manner.

21. For instance, rather than being drawn into a
debate over the relative merits of "A & B" versus
"C", that is the value of Abstinence or Being
Faithful over the use of Condoms, we should
continue to recognise that people are better able
to make such choices for themselves when they are
made aware of both their status and relevant

22. Efforts to promote behavioural change in any
given society will also need to take into account
the complexity of sexual relations within it,
which will inevitably include issues of culture,
tradition, power and status, such as the
existence of often unequal power relationships
between men and women. Ideological or religious
convictions should not distract us from giving
men and women access to information or
technologies that enable them to protect
themselves using the means most suitable for
their needs.

23. Having made this point I, however, also wish
to affirm that Botswana's anti-AIDS strategy has
from the beginning been anchored in "ABC" or "D",
as in "Death".

24. In this regard I would further stress that
for us the placing of "A" and "B" before "C" has
never been merely a matter of their order in the
English alphabet. For young people, in
particular, we recognise that abstinence is the
only 100% effective means of protection from the
virus. Abstinence also remains the only way to
avoid many other potentially negative
consequences of premature sexual activity among
youth, which can be to their physical, emotional,
mental and/or social detriment. And so, in the
face of a globalising world that increasingly
challenges local norms and traditions, we shall
continue to seek to empower our youth with the
knowledge that they are free to say no to
unwanted sexual activity. The true test of
freedom is often less about what we are free to
do as what we are free not to do.

25. In encouraging people of all ages to
recognise the moral imperatives of the choices
they make we shall also continue to work
alongside our diverse religious community. But,
at the same time we recognise that even choices
that are grounded in sectarian definitions of
morality are not always straightforward. What
does even the most convinced opponent of condoms,
for example, say to an HIV negative mother who
may be married to a domineering husband who
happens to be positive?

26. The effectiveness of any strategy or
intervention in the struggle against the virus
must also be measured against reliable data as to
its prevalence and public knowledge and
behaviour. It is for this reason that last year,
after more than a decade of conducting antenatal
sero-prevalence surveys, we undertook the most
comprehensive study yet of behavioural patterns
and HIV prevalence in our general population. The
2004 Botswana AIDS Impact Survey, or BIAS II, had
as its objectives:

* To generate nationally representative,
population-based estimates on HIV prevalence
among the population from 18 months of age and

* To identify behavioural factors that are
associated with the spread of HIV epidemic among
the population from 10-64 years of age, in order
to develop interventions for prevention,
infection control and impact mitigation; and

* To establish core benchmarks against which
successive progress on impact of the National
HIV/AIDS Response can be measured.

27. This survey, which targeted a sample of 8292
households from all over the country, of which
7612, or 92%, were successfully interviewed;
covered such areas as knowledge of HIV
transmission and prevention, beliefs and
misconceptions about HIV, behaviour, practices,
care and support.

28. In addition, HIV tests were conducted on a
sample population of just over 14,000, which
confirmed an overall national prevalence rate of
17% in the general population aged 18 months to
64 years, which is less than many incautious
media reports have continued to suggest.

29. This composite, however, masks significant
variations with respect to age, gender and
residence. Among 30-34 year olds the HIV
prevalence rate peaks at 40%.

30. In this sombre context we can perhaps
nonetheless derive modest hope in the fact that
the figures for 15-19 year olds and 20-24 year
olds were 6% and 19% respectively. The importance
of increasing our efforts to prevent mother to
child transmission is reflected in the fact that
that the percentage of 18 month to 4 year old
living with the virus was found to be virtually
the same as those falling in the 15-19 year old

31. In terms of gender the sharpest differences
were recorded among those between 15 and 29, with
10% of the females and only 3% of the males aged
between 15-19 being HIV positive. Not
unexpectedly the prevalence rates in the urban
areas were relatively higher, though in many
cases less so than we might have imagined. For
example, the prevalence rate for our largest
centre, our capital city Gaborone, was 19%, just
2% above the national average.

32. For an optimist what is more encouraging, but
also perhaps more open to debate, was the
Survey's findings with respect to knowledge and
behaviour. Among the 15-49 year olds 89% were
able to correctly identify at least three ways of
HIV prevention. Interestingly the researchers
found no significant differences between the
genders or age cohorts in this finding.

33. The percentage of people between 15-49 years
who believed women can negotiate safer sex was
83%, 82% for men and 84% for women. The figure
for males was a significant improvement over a
2001 survey that showed only about two-thirds of
the males agreeing that women should be allowed
to negotiate safer sex.

34. In terms of behaviour the percentage of
people between 15-49 years old who reported
having sex with more than one partner over the
last 12 months was 6%, with only negligible
variations between the age sub-groups. If true
this finding certainly challenges some of the
popular assumptions about current levels of

35. In terms of the use of condoms the Survey
reported a significant increase among those in
the 15-24 year age group. Whereas a similar
survey conducted in the year 2000 showed only 16%
reporting their use, the figure for 2004 was 72%,
with 86% in the same group reporting that they
had used condoms with non-regular partners. By
contrast condom use for 25-49 year olds was 49%.

36. Finally, the Survey found school attendance
among orphans aged 10-14 stood at 94%, which is
just one percentage point lower than the average
for non-orphans.

37. While one should be circumspect about taking
more than limited comfort from the numbers I have
just reported, especially given the continued
existence of high HIV prevalence rates among our
adult population, they do encourage me to believe
that the immense efforts and resources that have
so far been directed in our fight against the
virus have not been in vain.

38. The opportunity for the great majority of our
young people to remain free of the virus exists,
while even the high prevalence rate among 25-49
year olds is in part a reflection of the growing
number of people who are benefiting from therapy
and otherwise choosing to live positively with
the virus.

39. As I indicated earlier, the successes and
failure of our efforts to halt the spread of HIV
in Botswana are of relevance to others to the
extent that they demonstrate the capacity of
public health systems in developing countries to
respond to the challenge. I am convinced that
others, more especially in our own continent, can
build on the lessons we have learned from our
failures and frustrations, as well as instances
of relative success.

40. The global fight against HIV/AIDS has now
reached a critical stage. Across Africa, the
world's most afflicted continent, there is a
growing willingness to confront the pandemic.
Only a few months ago it was my task to lead my
colleagues at an African Union Summit in
discussions about how we could more effectively
harness our own resources in partnership with the
international community to meet the challenge. It
was a serious session with no voices being raised
in denial.

41. But, it should be recognised that, as in the
case of Botswana, the most afflicted nations will
need the sustained support of individuals and
institutions from outside of the continent. In
the absence of expanded prevention, treatment and
care, the AIDS death toll in Africa is likely to
rise. This means that whilst the current
situation is already severe, the worst may be yet
to come. I can only implore those here gathered
to continue to help us walk a different path.

42. Let us also here recognise that as long as
HIV remains the leading cause of death in Africa,
the entire world will remain at risk. In an era
of globalisation, we should remind ourselves that
the virus respects neither political boundaries
nor geographic barriers in its relentless advance.

43. As I am sure many in this hall are aware, in
December 2003, the World Health Organisation
(WHO) announced a strategy aimed at bringing ARV
treatment to 3 million people living with HIV in
developing countries. Notwithstanding some early
shortcomings it would be a mistake to dismiss
this plan as a failure. My county's own qualified
success has often been slow and uncertain.

44. When confronted by the, at times seemingly
insurmountable, difficulties associated with the
spread of HIV it is too easy to give in to
frustration. We all now know that the potential
for quick fix solutions is remote. But, in the
face of harsh reality, let us rather continue to
battle as optimists. As the American President
Harry Truman once observed:

"A pessimist is one who makes difficulties of his
opportunities and an optimist is one who makes
opportunities of his difficulties."

45. Finally, let me take this opportunity to once
more express my sincere appreciation for the many
people around the world, including all of you,
who continue to assist us in our life and death
struggle. There is a saying:

"In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends".

46. In this great hall I see that we have many
friends. As I said at the beginning of my
remarks, is great encouragement. To the scientist
here gathered let me therefore express my own
appreciation. In your work you are carrying the
torch of hope for all of us. Let this Conference
therefore not be seen as just another talk shop.
Let it instead be recorded as a point in which
humankind moved from hope to delivery in the
battle against HIV.

47. I thank you for your attention.

D 3) Remarks by H.E. the President and H.E. the
President of Brazil at a luncheon in Brasilia

Reproduced below are copies of a) H.E. President
Festus Mogae's remarks at a luncheon held in his
honour at the Itamatary Palace, Brasilia, hosted
by H.E. President of the Federative Republic of
Brazil, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Madam Maris
Leticia da Silva, as well as b) an unofficial
translation of H.E. President Lula's own
welcoming remarks:

D3a) Remarks by H.E. Mr. Festus G. Mogae,
President of the Republic of Botswana, Proposing
a toast at a luncheon hosted in his and First
Lady Barbara Mogae's honour by the President of
the Federative Republic of Brazil, H.E. Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva and Madam Maris Leticia da
Silva, at the Itamatary Palace, Brasilia, on the
26th of July 2005:

Your Excellency, President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
and Madam Maris Leticia da Silva,
Honourable President of the Senate
Honourable Ministers here present
Your Excellencies Members of the Diplomatic Corps
Honourable Members of Parliament here present
Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen,

1. Your Excellency, let me at the outset
thank you for your kind invitation and for the
warm hospitality that has been extended to my
delegation and I since we arrived in this
beautiful country. I am delighted to be here for
a number of reasons, key among them being the
fact that our two countries though separated by a
vast ocean, have common bonds and interests.

2. To begin with Your Excellency, Brazil has
deep historical ties with Africa, which makes
those of us who come from the continent feel very
much at home here. We have once more observed
during our short stay evidence of the fact that
Africa has had a profound influence in shaping
Brazil¡¦s cultural identity. We see this in your
music, cuisine and other practices. This is of
course not surprising given Brazil's longstanding
connections to our continent, as reflected in the
fact that it is home to the second largest black
population after Nigeria.

3. Another bond between us is that both our
countries are driven by the moral imperative to
ensure decent living conditions for our peoples,
hence our unrelenting efforts to forge global
partnerships. Together we embrace of the
principle of South-South Cooperation.

4. I am aware Your Excellency, that in the
past there has been only limited contact between
our two countries, although we have enjoyed some
degree of cooperation, most notably in the health
sector. This visit has therefore been an
opportunity to begin to explore additional areas
of potential partnership.

5. One area in which we have already
benefited from Brazil's example is in our battle
against HIV/AIDS. When we in Botswana pondered
over a suitable strategy for arresting the
debilitating effects of the spread of the virus
we found in Brazil a model of what a developing
country can achieve through a proactive and
holistic policy of intervention.

6. Your antiretroviral programme has been
very successful, and your aggressive campaign to
promote safe sex has helped to keep infection
rates low.

7. You may wish to know Your Excellency that
the information on the operational feasibility of
a public sector ARV programme which our
multi-sectoral team gathered during their
fact-finding Mission in 2001, greatly assisted us
when we were preparing to roll out our own
antiretroviral therapy programme.

8. We are further convinced we can benefit
from Brazil's experience in other areas. We know
for instance that this country has a
well-developed agricultural sector.

9. One of the main challenges we face is to
diversify our economy away from over-dependence
on mining. To this end we have developed policies
aimed at the revival and development of our agro
industry. In this respect, I am happy to note
that our officials have already been in contact,
and discussions are already on-going with regards
to cooperation in the further development of our
leather industry.

10. Another promising area for cooperation is
the pharmaceutical sector. Botswana can
undoubtedly learn from Brazil's experiences in
HIV drug resistance monitoring and management and
capacity building in the manufacturing of various
laboratory agents.

11. In addition, we hope to explore the
possibilities of enhanced partnership between our
countries in such additional areas as sports
development, environmental management and
information and communications technology. In
each of these areas, I am informed, contacts have
already been established.

12. In light of what I have just outlined,
today's signing of a Framework Agreement to
Promote Technical Cooperation is most welcome.
It will be in the enlightened self-interest of
our governments to ensure that this Agreement is
fully implemented.

13. Your Excellency, we have followed with
interest and admiration the impressive growth of
your economy, and in particular the expansion of
your foreign trade. Today your country ranks
among the worlds leading economic powers
producing an array of goods ranging from
Agricultural produce to automobiles to

14. Experience shows that trade and regional
integration can make an important contribution to
poverty reduction and sustainable growth among
nations. An example of this scenario has been
the success of Common Market of the Southern Cone
or MERCOSUR, which has clearly brought
substantial economic benefits to this nation and
its neighbours.

15. We are therefore optimistic about the
mutual benefits that can be derived from the
recently signed preferential trade agreement
between MERCOSUR and the Southern African Customs
Union (SACU), to which we of course belong. This
agreement should become a model for promotion of
the South-South trade.

16. Your Excellency the efforts of your
country, and indeed your own personal efforts, in
seeking to foster closer relations with Africa
have not gone unnoticed. It is my understanding
that since coming into office, you have visited
our continent on a number of occasions. These
exchanges have also opened up avenues for greater
trans-South Atlantic cooperation.

17. The consistent role of your country in
the campaign towards the creation of a more just
and equitable economic world order has also not
gone unnoticed. In this regard we have found
common ground in such fora as the Non Aligned
Movement, the Group of 77 and World Trade
Organisation negotiations.

18. In conclusion Your Excellency let me once
again thank you, the government and people of
Brazil for their gracious hospitality.

19. Distinguished Guests, Ladies and
Gentlemen, May I now request you to rise and join
me in drinking a toast to:

* The continued good health and happiness of His Excellency the President;
* Continued friendship and solidarity between the
people of Brazil and Botswana; and
* International peace and security.

D3b. Speech by H.E. Inácio Luiz Squid Da Silva,
President of the Federative Republic of Brazil,
on occasion of the Official Visit of the
President of the Republic of Botswana, 26th of
July of 2005

This is an unofficial translation from the
original Portuguese text, which is available
online at -

Y.E. Mr. Festus Mogae, President of the Republic
of Botswana and Mrs. Barbara Mogae,
Minister Nelson Jobim, president of the Supreme Federal Court,
Mrs. Adrienne Senna,
Ambassador Celso Amorim, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Mrs. Ana Amorim,
Members of the Diplomatic Corps,
Our honoured visitors from Botswana

1. It is an honour for us to have been able
to receive an official visit to Brazil from
President Festus Mogae and Mrs. Barbara Mogae.

2. It is a privilege to be able to receive
the Head of State of a country that, beyond being
a friend to Brazil, is an example of political
stability and commitment to upholding democratic

3. Through its stability Botswana has made
an important contribution the building of peace
and cooperation in Southern Africa as a whole
over the years. It has been a pioneer of
democracy accompanied by economic and social
development to others in the region. Today,
Southern Africa has emerged symbol of tolerance
and renaissance on the African continent.

4. In the near future we will be organizing,
in Rio de Janeiro, a Symposium on Southern and
Eastern Africa. This will be another occasion for
us to better know and learn from the experience
of Botswana and its neighbours. In our bilateral
talks today we found common ground on a number of
multilateral issues, in particular on the need
for reform of the United Nations.

5. Brazil is working closely with African
states in order to realize the reform of the
Security Council, so as to make it more
democratic and representative through the
presence of developing countries as permanent
members. I am thankful that President Mogae today
reiterated Botswana's support for Brazil's
aspiration for a Permanent Seat on the Council.

6. Mr. President, Brazil desires to
establish a mutually beneficial partnership with
Botswana. We desire that our bilateral ties be
strengthened in line with our shared commitment
to South-South cooperation; which my
administration has championed.

7. There is still much that we can
accomplish. Our bilateral relationship is in its
infancy, having only started to gain greater
vigour last year, when your Ministry of Trade and
Industry sponsored an investment mission to

8. In March of this year, the Brazilian
government in turn sent a diplomatic mission to
Gaborone in order to explore various potential
areas for further cooperation, such as in health,
sports development, fishery and eco-tourism.

9. The Technical Cooperation Agreement we
signed today represents a landmark in the
consolidation of our relations. The agreement
will, in particular, be instrumental for
continuing and increasing our co-operation in the
combat to the HIV/AIDS. We are all mindful of the
need to be proactive in the face of this terrible
epidemic, whose social cost is immeasurable.

10. President Mogae, you can be certain that
Brazil is prepared to do what it can to assist
your country and others in the region to mitigate
the effect of the scourge. One of the possible
forms of assistance that we are exploring is to
further collaborate in raising awareness through
educational television programming for schools
and communities. We are in agreement that the
awareness is one of the central elements in the
fight against the afflictions of HIV/AIDS.

11. There is also god potential for
cooperation in the field of agriculture.
Botswana's semi-arid environment is similar to
that of certain parts of Brazil, which has great
diversity in its regions. Given this circumstance
there is, I believe, a potential for us to
transfer something of our experience in tropical
agriculture in more marginal areas, which we have
developed in recent decades.

12. There is also good potential for the
expansion of commercial relations. We therefore,
welcome Botswana's signature on the agreement on
preferential tariffs between the Mercosul and the
Southern African Customs Union. I am convinced of
that the process of liberalization between the
Mercosul and the SACU will create the legal
conditions and necessary incentives so as to
allow at upsurge of exchange between our two

13. Additional opportunities exist to explore
our economic relations, with the aim of promoting
greater investment. Already there is exchange in
such areas as tourism, textiles, leather and
footwear industries, farming and financial

14. Mr. President, you are recognized as an
example of leadership in Africa. Your commitment
to democratic values and contribution to the
political stability and development of Botswana
has been an asset.

15. We have followed with interest the
ongoing efforts of your government in
diversifying the productive sector of the
country. The actions undertaken by your
government in promoting social indices have also
been notable.

16. This visit by Your Excellency inaugurates
a new chapter in the relations between our two
countries. For our part, the government of Brazil
is firmly committed to advancing our bilateral
cooperation for the development and in expanding
our ties in all possible areas. This commitment
is grounded in the historical affinities,
cultural and ethnic, that bind Brazilians with
Africans. The political will to move our
relations forward has never been stronger. For
these reasons your visit is most timely.

17. In closing let us celebrate this occasion
by making a toast to the growth of relations
between and celebrate it, I invite all the gifts
to make a toast to growth of relations between
Botswana and Brazil, and to the personal
happiness of the President Festus Mogae and the
First Lady Mrs. Barbara Mogae. Thank you all for
your attention.

D 4) Address by H.H. the Vice President
Lieutenant General Seretse Khama Ian Khama at the
Official Opening of Development Projects at the
Kanye Brigades (28/7/05)

Cabinet Ministers
Kgosi Seepapitso
Members of Parliament and Councillors
District Commissioner
Council Secretary
Chairperson and Members of the Board of Trustees
Coordinator and Staff of Kanye Brigade
Distinguished Guests
Ladies and Gentlemen

1. It is a privilege for me to be with you
today to officiate at this important event, which
marks the official opening of the new development

2. What could be more enjoyable than to open
an institution that will play a critical role in
promoting access to vocational education and
training, providing many of our young people with
employable skills; an opportunity for income
generation, basic skills for active participation
in the country's ongoing socio-economic
development; and facilitating diversification of
training programmes as advocated by the Revised
National Policy on Education.

3. Kanye Brigade I am told, was established
in 1969 as Kanye Youth Training Centre at Ramatea
Ranch which is today known as Kanye Brigades
Development Trust. My being here is significant
for me also because 36 years ago my mother opened
the then Kanye Youth Centre at Ramatea Ranch.

4. Our brigades are unique and have a very
special place in the development of this country.
They arose out of community commitment and our
peoples' desire to provide education and training
for their youth. The earlier brigades such as
yours here are a reflection of that history,
whose distinguishing marks were selflessness and
the spirit of self-help (Boipelego). Sadly, the
spirit of Boipelego appears to be ebbing, while a
culture of entitlement appears to be on the rise.

5. Unfortunately, this development is
surfacing at a time when Botswana, and indeed the
world as a whole, has to compete in an
increasingly globalised context.

6. To meet the demands of a globalised
economy, we must now provide training programmes
that prepare for our country's diversifying
economy, which produce flexible and innovative
workers; that produce a multi-skilled human
resource; that meet international standards and
that prepare their graduates for higher education
and lifelong learning. At the same time these
programmes have to prepare citizens engaging in
self-employment and informal sector activities,
thus moving away from the culture of dependency
and entitlement. I am glad to note that Kanye
Brigade takes this challenge seriously. Apart
from the regular artisan programmes, the brigades
offers agriculture and tourism as evening
programmes targeting the community at large.
Furthermore, the Brigade operates a day care
centre for children up to 6 years of age.

7. We are also aware of the fact that the
cost of training has increased in the last few
years. At the same time, there is also a need to
constantly raise the quality of the training as
our country tries to meet the demands of an
increasingly competitive global economy. This is
a challenge for every training institution in
Botswana and in particular, to a brigade that has
had to rely on Government support, community and
donor support, and small production activities,
for its sustainability.

8. The Government of Botswana has through
NDP 8 made Vocational Education and Training a
priority. This is evident in the expansion of
existing facilities and development of new ones
as an effort to increase access to Vocational
Education, eleven brigades benefited from such
capital development while a new Gaborone
Technical College was established and the Auto
Trade Technical College was expanded. During NDP
9, nine brigades centres benefited from capital
development; a College of Technical and
Vocational Education is been constructed in
Francistown. Two other Colleges of Applied Arts
and Technology are to be built in Oodi and
Selebi-Phikwe and further four Technical Colleges
are planned for Charles Hill, Kasane, Tsabong and

9. As part of the Brigades' Development
Project Phase II, Kanye Brigade has been expanded
and we are here today to witness the official
opening of the following new facilities; auto
mechanical workshop, building workshop, double
classroom block, central administration block,
kitchen/dining hall, ablution block, seven staff
houses, sewerage pump system and gate house.

10. These projects, which were completed at a
total of P1.0091.040, will increase the students
training places by 96. All these inputs should
assist the Brigade in ensuring that the training
provided at Kanye Brigade is of the highest
quality and meets both national and international

11. Given the ongoing high demand for
training places in the area of vocational
education and training, it is incumbent upon the
trainees to apply themselves seriously to their
studies. The practical skills they are acquiring
in institutions such as these should assist them
in being self reliant.

12. That being said, though we view them as
our future leaders, they tend to disappoint us at
times with some of them vandalising institutional
property, property that is meant to assist them
in their learning. This type of behaviour is
unacceptable, and I urge every citizen of this
country to condemn such acts.

13. This kind of behaviour affects the
delivery of quality training and increases the
cost of training, since funds used in repairing
damages could be utilised for the improvement of
training provision. I would like to ask trainees
for their support in safe guarding the centres'
property for the benefit of those who shall come
after you.

14. In conclusion, let me remind you that the
HIV/AIDS scourge continues to claim lives. It is
claiming the lives of our youth and hence our
very manpower that we are nurturing and
educating. This has been a real challenge for
the country, a challenge that can be dealt with,
with the support of all communities and every man
and woman, boy and girl.

15. I wish to end by expressing my
appreciation for all efforts made by the Board of
Trustees, the management and staff of the
Brigade. It is through the result of your
commitment and hard work that we are here today.
I now declare Kanye Brigade new training
facilities, officially open. PULA! PULA! PULA!

E. OP Press Office Forwarding:

E 1) Botswana-Brazil Joint Communiqué (26/7/05)

Today H.E. President Festus Mogae travelled from
Rio de Janeiro to the Brazilian capital city,
Brasilia, to meet with the President of the
Federative Republic of Brazil, H.E. Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva. Reproduced below is a joint
communiqué issued at the end of the visit.

Joint Communiqué:

1. Invited by H.E. Mr. Inacio Lula Da Silva,
President of the Federative Republic of Brazil,
H.E. Mr. Festus Gontebanye Mogae, President of
the Republic of Botswana, paid an Official Visit
to Brazil on July 26th, 2005. Mr. Mogae was
accompanied by Members of Parliament, the
Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and International Cooperation and other
Government officials.

2. Mr. Mogae's programme included a courtesy call
on the President of the Supreme Federal Court,
Minister Nelson Jobim.

3. Between July 23rd and 25th, President Festus
Mogae also visited the city of Rio de Janeiro,
where he met with the State Governor. On July
24th, the President delivered a speech at the
opening ceremony of the 3rd International AIDS
Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and

4. During their meeting in Brasilia, the
Presidents reviewed the bilateral agenda, having
exchanged opinions on various international
issues, as well as on the political and economic
situation in the regions. The Brazilian President
expressed his pleasure upon the prompt acceptance
of his invitation for President Mogae to visit

5. Both leaders expressed deep concern at the
persistence of hunger and poverty in the world, a
calamity that enhances the dissemination of
diseases, reduces work capacity, disorganizes
societies and augments the difficulties of
developing countries in promoting economic growth
with social justice. Both parties reaffirmed that
the full implementation, within an established
timeframe, of the Millennium Development Goals
should be the priority of all countries. They
expressed firm political determination towards
working together to promoter greater
international cooperation and to mobilize support
in favour of efforts aiming at increasing the
availability of resources to development

6. Along the lines of the collective exercise to
establish a new international paradigm, the
Presidents declared that the developing countries
should play a positive and entrepreneurial role
in authentic efforts to promote South-South
solidarity and partnership.

7. The President of Botswana reaffirmed the high
regard towards the Brazilian Government's
determination to enhance relations with Africa.
President Lula expressed to President Mogae the
Brazilian Government's willingness to closely
cooperate with Africa on national and regional
development initiatives.

8. The Parties also stressed the need to
implement policies directed towards improving the
living conditions of the neediest. The Presidents
underlined the importance of the involvement of
the Brazilian and Botswana peoples in the process
of constructing a closer relation between the two

9. The expressed their belief in the potential of
international trade to foster economic growth. In
the view of the Presidents, the incorporation of
developing countries in the global economy
necessarily requires access without
discrimination to the markets of the developed
countries. They acknowledged that multilateral
commercial regulations must meet the needs of
developing countries, and pointed out, in
particular, the importance of the negotiations on
agriculture, a sector in which such countries are
more competitive and which the worst market
distortions persist. Both leaders expressed the
wish that the negotiations taking place at the
WTO be successfully concluded, so as to correct
such distortions.

10. The Presidents agreed on the need to reform
the United Nations, particularly the Security
Council, making it more democratic and
representative, by means of the incorporation of
more permanent members. The President of Botswana
restated his Government's support to the
Brazilian candidacy to a permanent seat in the
Security Council. The Brazilian President
expressed his heartfelt gratitude for such
important support, which reflects the new
political dimension of the bilateral relations.

11. The Presidents celebrated the beginning of
discussions between Mercosul and the SACU
countries with a view to carry out trade
negotiations, the results of which will certainly
contribute to increased trade between the two

12. President Lula praised his counterpart for
the leading role that Botswana has played within
the Southern African Development Community -
SADC. He specially highlighted that the member
states of that organization greatly contribute to
the fight against poverty through regional

13. The leaders exchanged views on the subject of
public health, and expressed their satisfaction
towards the educational bilateral project that,
by means of interactive television programmes,
called "talk back", aims at building teacher's
capacity to handle the fight against AIDS in
schools and the community at large.

14. The parties congratulated each other on the
success that both countries have achieved in
fighting AIDS by means of a programme of free and
universal distribution of anti-retroviral drugs
that has led to the stabilization of the annual
average rate of new infections.

15. During the visit, A Bilateral Agreement on
Technical Cooperation was signed that will become
a legal framework around which future programmes
of cooperation will develop.

16. At the end of the visit to Brasilia,
President Mogae expressed his gratitude for the
warm welcome and the courtesy extended by the
Brazilian Government toward him and his
delegation, and invited President Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva to visit Botswana on a date to be
mutually agreed through regular diplomatic

E 2) Technical Cooperation Agreement between the
Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil
and the Government of the Republic of Botswana

The following agreement was signed by the
Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and International Cooperation, Mr. Ernest
Mpofu, on behalf pf the Government of Botswana
and the Hon. Minister of Foreign Relations, Mr.
Celso Amorim, on behalf of the Government of the
Federative Republic of Brazil:

The Government of the Federative Republic of
Brazil and The Government of the Republic of
Botswana (hereinafter referred to as the
"Contracting Parties")

Recognising the wish to strengthen the friendly
ties exiling between their people;

Considering the mutual interest in fostering the
socioeconomic development of their respective

Convinced of the urgency to lay emphasis on sustainable development;

Recognising the reciprocal advantages of
technical cooperation in the areas of common

Desiring to develop cooperation which stimulates technical progress;

Herby agree as follows:

Article I

The present Technical Cooperation Agreement,
hereinafter referred to as "Agreement", aims to
promote technical cooperation in the areas given
priority by the Contracting Parties.

Article II

1. The programmes, projects and activities
of the technical cooperation shall be implemented
through Complementary Agreements.

2. The executing and coordinating
institutions and the input necessary to the
implementation of the above mentioned programmes,
projects and activities shall be as well
established in the Complementary Agreements.

3. To develop programmes, projects and
activities under this Agreement, the Contracting
Parties may consider the participation of public
and private sector institutions, as well as
non-governmental organisations, in accordance
with the terms of the correspondent Complementary

4. The Contracting Parties shall, jointly or
separately, contribute to implement programmes
and activities approved by the Contracting
Parties, including through the assistance and
financing from international and regional
agencies or organisations, as well as through
regional and international funds and programmes
and other donors.

Article III

1. The Contracting Parties shall hold
meetings in order to deal with issues related to
the technical cooperation programmes, projects
and activities under this Agreement, such as:

a) to evaluate and determine common priority
areas suitable for the implementation of
technical cooperation;

b) to devise mechanisms and procedures to be
adopted by both Contracting Parties;

c) to examine and approve the Work Plans;

d) to analyze, approve and implement technical
cooperation programmes, projects and activities;

e) to evaluate the results of the execution of
the programmes, projects and activities
implemented under the Agreement.

2. The location and date of the meetings shall be
agreed upon through diplomatic channels.

Article IV

Each Contracting Party shall guarantee
that the documents, information and other data
obtained in the course of the implementation of
this Agreement shall neither be released nor
transmitted to third parties without previous
consent, in writing, by the other Contracting

Article V

Each Contracting Party shall provide for
the personnel to be sent by one of the Parties,
under terms of this Agreement, the necessary
logistical support related to their
accommodation, transportation facilities, access
to the information required for the fulfilment of
their specific functions, as well as other
facilities to be agreed upon in the Complementary

Article VI

1. Each Contracting party shall grant to the
personnel appointed by the other Contracting
Party to accomplish their tasks in its territory,
under this Agreement, as well as to their legal
dependents, when necessary, based upon
reciprocity of treatment, provided that it does
not encompass Brazilians in national territory or
foreigners with permanent resident in Brazil:

a) official visa, according to existing
applicable rules of the Contracting Parties,
requested through diplomatic channels;

b) exemption from taxes and other duties on
importation of personal belongings, during the
first six months from the arrival date, provided
that it does not constitute any tax related to
storage, transportation or other similar
services, needed for a first installation, when
the period of legal stay in the host country
exceeds one year.

c) identical exemption from taxes and other
duties, as mentioned in item "b' of this Article.

d) exemption from taxes on salaries paid to
personnel by the institutions from the
Contracting Party which sent them. In the case of
remuneration and daily allowances paid by the
host institutions, the law of the host country
shall be applied, complying with double-taxation
agreements which may be signed between the
Contracting Parties;

e) immunity from legal process in respect of
spoken or written words and of all actions
carried out in the performance of their official
duties; and

f) repatriation facilities on crisis situation.

2. The selection of personnel shall be done by
the sending Contracting Party and must be
approved by the receiving Contracting Party.

Article VII

The personnel sent to the territory of
the other Party, in connection with the present
Agreement, shall behave in accordance with the
terms of each programme, project or activity, and
shall be subject to the laws and regulations of
the host country, with the exceptions expressed
in Article VI of the present Agreement.

Article VIII

1. Goods, equipment and other items that may be
provided by one Contracting Party to the other
for the execution of programmes, projects and
activities developed under the terms of this
Agreement, as agreed upon and approved in the
respective Complementary Agreement, shall be
exempted from import and export taxes, duties and
other charges, except for expenses of storage,
transportation and similar services.

2. At the end of the programmes, projects and
activities, the above mentioned goods, all
equipment and other items, unless they are
donated to the receiving Party, shall also be
re-exported with the same exemption from import
and export taxes and duties, except for
government taxes related to expenses of storage,
transportation and similar services.

3. In cases of importation and exportation of
goods used in the execution of programmes,
projects and activities, developed in the scope
of this Agreement, the public institution in
charge of the execution shall take the necessary
measures for the customs liberation of the goods.

Article IX

1. Each Contracting Party shall notify the other
of the fulfilment of its internal legal
requirements through diplomatic channels,
necessary for the approval of this Agreement,
which shall come into force on the date of the
receipt of the second notification.

2. The present Agreement is valid for a period of
5 (five0 years and shall be renewed automatically
for successive period of equal duration, unless
one of the Contracting Parties informs the other,
through diplomatic channels of its decision to
denounce it at any time.

3. The denunciation of this Agreement shall not
affect the implementation of the programmes,
projects and activities in execution, which are
not yet concluded, unless the Contracting Parties
decide otherwise, in writing.

4. If either of the Contracting Parties considers
it desirable to amend any provision of the
present agreement, it may request consultation
with the other Contracting Party. Any amendment
so agreed upon shall come into effect after the
exchange of letters or notes to that effect
between the Contracting Parties.

Article X

Controversies arising from the
implementation of the Agreement shall be solved
by all peaceful and friendly means accepted by
public international law, favouring the
accomplishment of direct negotiations between the
Contracting Parties.

Done in Brasilia, on the 26th of July in
the year 2005, in two (2) originals, in
Portuguese and English languages, both texts
being equally authentic.

E 3) Additional notices and forwarding from 23-30/7/05:

* 24/7/05: President Mogae's Press Conference and
Speech to be webcast by
* 27/7/05: "Botswana praised for AIDS fight"
* 27/7/05: "Botswana-Merck-Gates team treat 47,000"