Albania has never had a particularly large concentration of Jews. Their presence dates from the twelfth century, but it was in the late fifteen century that there was a notable influx of Jews. The provinces that are now Albania were under Ottoman rule in this period and Jewish emigrants were largely Sephardic or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) speakers that concentrated in most of Albania’s larger settlements. Albania achieved independence in 1913, and according to a 1930 census its Jewish community was only 204, 300 by 1937. Most survived the Holocaust and Albania, which was under relatively benign Italian rule, even became a safe haven for Jews who fled from neighboring territories. Only trace communities stayed in Albania under Communist rule, and most left for Israel after the system’s collapse in 1991.