As early as the 10th century, a community of Ashkenazi Jews settled in Prague. The Jews of the Czech lands were predominantly settled in that city, which saw a golden age of Jewish cultural and religious life in the 16th century. Under the control of the Hapsburg Empire Czechoslovak Jews became increasingly urban and rarely spoke Yiddish as they became assimilated into the dominant German culture. Reform Judaism was very strong in the Czech region, however in more rural Slovakia, Orthodox Judaism held sway. After 1870, the Slovak lands came under the control of the Hungarian half of the dual monarchy. Consequently, Slovak Jews were increasingly assimilated into Hungarian culture. By 1930, 356,830 Jews lived in Czechoslovakia. Only 42,247 survived the Holocaust. Following the Communist rise to power in 1948, most of that remaining community emigrated. By 1991, fewer than 10,000 Jews remained.