Jewish communities have lived in Hungary since the 11th century. Despite a troubled and at times bloody history, Hungarian Jews were very acculturated by the eve of World War I. Emancipated by the famous revolutionary, Lajos Kossuth, 19th century Hungarian Jews came to think of themselves as “Magyars of the Mosaic persuasion.” Hungarian Jews were overwhelmingly involved in Hungary’s economic development, particularly banking and industry. In 1941, 480,000 Jews lived in Hungary. Until 1944, the Jews of Budapest, though impoverished and humiliated, had largely avoided deportation to the death camps. After a Nazi-engineered coup, however, this all changed. Fewer than 190,000 survived at the end of 1945. Today, between 50,000 and 150,000 Jews remain in Hungary.