There is evidence of Jews traveling through the territory of Modern Poland as early as the 10th century, but it was not until the 12th century that a significant population began to take root there. Encouraged by tolerant regimes, the Jewish community in Poland became the vibrant center of Jewish religious life. With the partitions of Poland beginning in 1772, the Jewish communities of the different regions took on their own different characters. In Galicia, Jewish communities were generally rural and loyal to the Hapsburgs. The Jews in Congress Poland, on the other hand, were largely assimilated into Polish urban culture and were the backbone of the economic development of that region. In the kresy, Jews from the Russian Pale of Settlement often spoke Russian in addition to Yiddish, and the Jews of this region were more profoundly influenced by the Jewish Enlightenment. Despite the at times harsh conditions in these regions, Poland remained a religious and cultural center. When Poland finally reformed after World War I, Jews immigrated to the area in vast numbers from Russia and the Ukraine. By 1938, around 3,310,000 Jews lived in Poland. However, less than a tenth of that number survived the Holocaust. In the years after the war, most of this remaining population emigrated until today, fewer than 10,000 Jews remain.