While there has been a Jewish presence in the territory occupied by modern Romania since Roman times, it was minimal until the immigrations of the 18th and 19th centuries. The Jewish communities in Romania were as diverse as the histories of the regions in which they lived. The Sephardic Jews of Wallachia were centered in the urban center of Bucharest, but in poorer Moldavia, the Jews lived predominantly in small villages. After World War I, Romania came to encompass urban middle class Jews from the former Hapsburg territories of Bukovina and Transylvania, as well as more proletarian and culturally Russian Jews from Bessarabia. By 1930, Romania was home to 756,930 Jews, the second largest community in East Central Europe. Half of that population did not survive the Holocaust, and due to mass immigration to Israel, fewer than 15,000 Jews remain in Romania today.