There is evidence of a small Jewish presence in the former Yugoslavia since Roman times. In the northern territories that later became Croatia and Slovenia the middle ages brought larger Jewish populations but also expulsions. Jews returned in significant numbers only in the late 18th century, particularly Ashkenazic (Yiddish-speaking) migrants from the Habsburg Empire that ruled over these provinces. In contrast, in parts of the former Ottoman territories of Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Macedonia, Jewish migrants were Sephardi -- Judeo-Spanish or Ladino speaking -- who arrived after expulsion from Spain in 1492. When Bosnia passed to Habsburg rule in1878, it also gained a significant number of Ashkenazic Jews. There were some 51,700 Jews in the newly-creation Yugoslav state in 1918, a number which grew to 82,500 by 1941. Only 14,000 survived the Holocaust, and many migrated during the early communist years or during the wars of 1995-2000. Today there are only trace communities in the now fragmented territories of the former Yugoslavia; the largest numbers 2,500 and is concentrated in Croatia.