les symboles phonétiques

phonétique


les symboles phonétiques


In the phonetic alphabet, a single symbol or letter corresponds to a single sound, unlike the traditional alphabets of English or French. The phonetic alphabet is provided here as a means for indicating pronunciation more consistently and precisely. Note that a single French sound may correspond to several different spellings or combinations of letters.

Vowels
[a] sa, la, toi
[e] ses, regarder, université
[ɛ] mère, treize, faites, belge
[ə] le, se
[i] Italie, si
[o] bureau, tôt
[ɔ] bonne, prof
[ø] peu, bleu
[œ] fleur, heure
[u] nous, jour
[y] tu, du

Nasal Vowels
[ã] campagne, dentiste
[ɛ] ingénieur, demain, impossible, lundi
[õ] mon, regardons

Semi-Vowels
[j] travailler, crayon
[ɥ] huit, suis
[w] soir, oui
Consonants
[b] beau, table
[d] dix, regarder
[f] français, oeuf
[g] gothique, guitare, gare
[k] couleur, quel
[l] les, aller, espagnole
[m] ma, comment
[n] nouveau, minérale
[ɲ] montagne
[p] parler, s'appeler
[R] rouge, Paris, mer
[s] sa, ça, passer
[ʃ] château, acheter
[t] ta, maths
[v] va, livre
[z] zèbre, musique
[ʒ] je, manger

 

l'élision


Vowels which are replaced by an apostrophe in the writing system are said to be elided. Elision occurs in the context of a following vowel sound. In French, only the letter "e" is elided.


Le petit enfant -> l'enfant
Je suis de Dallas. -> Je suis d'Austin.
Je déteste la radio -> J'écoute la radio.
L'ami de Pierre -> L'ami d'Alice

Listen to the following examples and take note of where the elision is made. Listen a second time and repeat.

Model: Marie aime la télévision. (Je)
J'aime la télévision.
 
1. Elle habite à Paris. (Je)
2. C'est le frère de Michel. (André)
3. Je suis de Fort Worth. (Arlington)



la liaison


The pronunciation of a word in French varies depending on the words that precede or follow it. For example, listen to the following phrases and note what happens to the first word in the third column:


trois trois femmes trois enfants
des des copains des amis
les les tantes les oncles
un un français un américain

The pronunciation of "latent" consonants (consonants that are normally not pronounced) before a following vowel is called liaison or linking. In the third column above, liaison links the two words with the sound /z/ (ex. des_amis) or with the sound /n/ (ex. un_américain). The result of liaison is a regular alternation of consonant and vowel sounds (CVCV ... etc.)

Listen to the following examples and take note of where the elision is made. Listen a second time and repeat.


Model: Comment_allez-vous?
 
1. Vous habitez en Europe?
2. Ils écoutent les informations à la télé.
3. Elles adorent les italiens et les espagnols.
4. Vous êtes d'où?