Japanese Online Self - Help Utility
Return to Basic Vocabulary Lists
単語 (たんご)- vocabulary


Transitive and Intransitive verbs -- pairs

Introduced in 611D
Transitive verbs
Intransitive verbs
[C2] 上げる to raise [C1] 上がる to rise, go up
[C2] 下げる to lower (something) [C1] 下がる to go down
[C2] 開ける to open [C1] 開く to open (by itself)
[C2] 閉める to close (something) [C1] 閉まる to close (by itself)
[C1] 出す to put out, to take out [C2] 出る to go out, to appear, to come out
[C2] 入れる to put in, to insert [C1] 入る to enter, to be included, to fit inside
[C1] 直す to fix [C1] 直る to get better
[C1] こわす to break (something) [C2] こわれる to become broken
[C2] つける to attach, to turn (something) on [C1] つく to stick, become attached
[C1] 消す to put out, to extinguish, to turn off [C2] 消える to go off, to disappear
[C1] 動かす to move (something) [C1] 動くto move (by itself), to be in motion
[C2] 止める to stop (something) [C1] 止まる to come to a stop
[C1] 落とす to drop (something) [C2] 落ちる to fall (from a height)
[C2] かける to hang (something on), to take (time) [C1] かかる to hang, to take (time)
[C2] 乗せる to put on a vehicle, to give a ride to [C1] 乗る to board a vehicle, to ride
[C1] 回す to turn (something), to send around [C1] 回る to turn around, to go around
[C2] 変える(かえる)to change (something) [C1] 変わる(かわる)to (undergo) change
[C1] 起こす to wake someone up. to raise, to raiseup, to set up [C2] 起きる to get up, to rise
[C2] 始める to begin (something) [C1] 始まる to begin
[C1] 終わる/[C2] 終える to end (something) [C1] 終わる to (come to an ) end

Additional pairs
Transitive verbs
Intransitive verbs
[C2] 伝える(つたえる)to convey, to report, to transmit [C1] 伝わる(つたわる)be conveyed; be passed along
[C2] 集める(あつめる)to gather (things/people)

[C1] 集まる(あつまる)to congregate

[C2] 見つける to find [C1] 見つかる to be found
[C1] 残す(のこす)to leave behind [C1] 残る(のこる)to be left, to remain
[C2] 並べる(ならべる)to line (things) up [C1] 並ぶ(ならぶ)to get in line
[C1] 寝かす(ねかす)to put to bed [C2] 寝る(ねる)to go to bed, to sleep
[C1] 切る(きる)to cut [C2] 切れる(きれる)to be cut
[C2] 写す(うつす)to film, to picture, to photograph [C1] 写る(うつる)to be photographed, to be projected
[C2] 映す(うつす)to project, to reflect, to cast [C1] 映る(うつる)to be reflected, to harmonize with
[C2] 決める(きめる)to decide, to choose, to determine [C1] 決まる(きめる)to be decided, to be settled
[C2] 育てる(そだてる)to raise, to rear, to bring up [C1] 育つ(そだつ)to grow (up) , to be raised (e.g. child)
[C2] 立てる to put up, to set up, to erect, to raise [C1] 立つ to stand, to rise, to stand up
[C2] 建てる(たてる)to build, to construct [C1] 建つ(たつ)to be erected, to be built
[C2] 続ける(つづける)to continue, to keep up [C1] 続く(つづく)to be continued, to last, to go on
[C2] 泊める(とめる)to give shelter, to lodge [C1] 泊まる(とまる)to stay at (e.g. hotel)
[C2] 治す(なおす)to cure, to heal [C1] 治る(なおる)to be cured, to get well, to be healed
[C2] 無くす(なくす)to lose something, to get rid of [C1] 無くなる(なくなる)be [get] lost, be missing
[C2] 沸かす(わかす)to boil, to heat [C1] 沸く(わく)to grow hot(e.g. water), to be boiled
[C2] 渡す(わたす)to hand [turn] over, to build (a bridge) over [C1] 渡る(わたる)to cross over, to go across
[C2] 揚げる(あげる)to fry, to cook [C1] 揚がる(あがる)to be deep fried
[C2] 飛ばす(とばす)to fly (something), to launch [C2] 飛ぶ(とぶ)to fly
[C2] 温める(あたためる)to warm, to heat [C1] 温まる(あたたまる)to become warm, to get warm:
[C2] 薄める(うすめる)to dilute, to water down [C1] 薄まる(うすめる)to become weak, o become diluted
[C2] 移す(うつす)to move from one setting or context to another [C1] 移る(うつる)to move《to a place, into a house》, to transfer to...
[C2] 埋める(うめる)to bury (e.g. in the ground) [C1] 埋まる(うまる)to be buried, to be surrounded
[C2] 売り切る to sell out, to sell off [C1] 売り切れる to be sold out
[C2] 起こす(おこす)to set up, to cause [C1] 起こる(おこる)to occur, to happen
[C2] 驚かす(おどろかす)to surprise (someone), to frighten (someone) [C1] 驚く(おどろく)to be surprised, to be astonished
[C2] 降ろす(おろす)to take down (e.g. flag), to let (a person) off [C1] 降りる(おりる)to descend (e.g. a mountain), to get off
[C2] 帰す to send (someone) back [C1] 帰る to return, to come home, to go home
[C2] 重ねる(かさねる)to pile up, to put something on top of something else [C1] 重なる(かさなる)to be piled up, to lie on top of one another
[C2] 片付ける(かたづける)to tidy up, to put in order [C1] 片付く(かたづく)be in (good) order, be tidy
[C2] 被せる(かぶせる)to cover (with something) [C1] 被る(かぶる)to put/wear on (one’s head)
[C2] 代える(かえる)to replace [C1] 代わる(かわる)take somebody's place, replace somebody
[C2] 切る to cut, to cut through [C1] 切れる to break, to snap, to be cut, to be disconnected
[C2] 崩す(くずす)to destroy, to demolish [C1] 崩れる(くずれる)to collapse, to crumble
[C2] 砕く(くだく)to break, to smash [C1] 砕ける(くだける)to be broken (into pieces)
[C2] 加える(くわえる)to add, to add up, to sum up [C1] 加わる(くわわる)to be added to, to be appended
[C2] 転がす(ころがす)to roll (something) [C1] 転がる(ころがる)to roll over , to tumble
[C2] 裂く(さく)to tear, to rip up [C1] 裂ける(さける)to split, to tear, to burst
[C2] 刺す(さす)to pierce, to stab, to prick [C1] 刺さる(ささる)be stuck
[C2] 覚ます(さます)to awaken [C1] 覚める(さめる)to wake, to be awaken
[C2] 従える(したがえる)to be accompanied by [C1] 従う(したがう)to abide (by the rules), to obey
[C2] 湿らす(しめらす)to make moist [C1] 湿る(しめる)to become wet; to be damp, to be moist
[C2] 進める(すすめる)to advance, to promote, to haste [C1] 進む(すすむ)to advance, to go forward
[C2] ずらす to shift (something), to slide (something) [C1] ずれる to slide, to slip off, be shifted
[C2] 揃える(そろえる)to collect, to gather, to get together [C1] 揃う(そろう)to become complete
[C2] 倒す(たおす)to throw, to bring down [C1] 倒れる(たおれる)to fall, to aollapse, to fall
[C2] 炊く(たく)to cook (grains, e.g. rice) [C1] 炊ける(たける)to be boiled, to be cooked
[C2] 助ける(たすける)to help, to save, to rescue [C1] 助かる(たすかる)to be saved, to be rescued
[C2] 溜める(ためる)to amass, to accumulate [C1] 溜まる(ためる) be accumulated, be piled up
[C2] 近づける(つかづける)to bring near, to put close [C1] 近づく(ちかづく)to approach, to draw near
[C2] 縮める(ちぢめる)to shorten, to reduce [C1] 縮まる(ちぢまる)to shorten, to narrow, to close
[C2] 縮める(ちぢめる) to shorten, to reduce [C1] 縮む(ちぢむ)to shrink, to contract, to diminish
[C2] 散らかす(ちらかす)to scatter around, to leave untidy [C1] 散らかる(ちらかる)to be in disorder, to lie scattered
[C2] 捕まえる(つかまえる)to catch, to arrest, to seize [C1] 捕まる(つかまる)to be caught, to be arrested
[C2] 浸ける(つける)to soak, to dip in [C1] 浸かる(つかる)to be soaked , to be well seasoned
[C2] 繋ぐ(つなげる)to tie, to connect [C1] 繋がる(つながる)to be tied together, to be connected
[C2] 繋げる(つなげる)to tie, to fasten, to connect [C1] 繋がる(つながる)to be tied together, to be connected
[C2] 潰す(つぶす)to smash, to crush [C1] 潰れる(つぶれる)to be crushed, to be smashed
[C2] 詰める(つめる)to stuff into, to jam, to cram [C1] 詰まる(つまる)be blocked, be stuffed (up)
[C2] 通す(とおす)to stick through, to force through [C1] 通る(とおる)to go by, to go past, to go along
[C2] 退かす(どかす)to remove [C1] 退く(しりぞく)to withdraw, to retire
[C2] 退ける(しりぞける)to put something out of the way [C1] 退く(しりぞく)to withdraw, to retire
[C2] 溶かす(とかす)to melt, to dissolve [C1] 溶ける(とける)be dissolved, be melted
[C2] 届ける(とどける)to deliver, to send [C1] 届く(とどく)to reach, to be delivered
[C2] 留める(とどめる)to stop, to turn off [C1] 留まる(とどまる)to stop (moving), to stay
[C2] 流す(ながす)to drain, to pour, to spill, to shed [C1] 流れる(ながれる)to stream, to flow (liquid, time, etc.)
[C2] 鳴らす(ならす)to ring, to sound, to chime [C1] 鳴る(なる)rings
[C2] 煮る(にる)to boil, to simmer, to stew [C1] 煮える(にえる)be boiled, be cooked
[C2] 逃がす(にがす)to let somebody escape [C1] 逃げる(にげる)to escape, to run away
[C2] 抜く(ぬく)to extract, to omit, to draw out [C1] 抜ける(ぬける)to come out, to fall out, to be omitted
[C2] 残す(のこす)to leave (behind, over) [C1] 残る(のこる)to remain, to be left
[C2] 伸ばす(のばす)to stretch, to extend, to lengthen [C1] 伸びる(のびる)to grow long (e.g. hair, nails)
[C2] 延ばす(おばす)to grow long (e.g. hair, nails) [C1] 延びる(のびる)to stretch, to extend, to lengthen
[C2] 載せる(のせる)to place on (something), to upload [C1] 載る(のる)to be placed on, to be uploaded
[C2] 挟む(はさむ)to interpose, to hold between [C1] 挟まる(はさまる)to get between, to be caught in
[C2] 外す(はずす)to unfasten, to undo [C1] 外れる(はずれる)to be disconnected
[C2] 冷やす(ひやす)to cool, to ice [C1] 冷える(ひえる)to get chilly, to cool down
[C2] 広げる(ひろげる)to spread, to extend, to expand [C1] 広がる(ひろがる)to spread(out), to extend, to stretch
[C2] 増やす(ふやす)to increase, to add to [C1] 増える(ふえる)to increase, to multiply
[C2] 膨らます(ふくらます)to swell, to expand, to inflate [C1] 膨らむ(ふくらむ)to expand, to swell (out)
[C2] 塞ぐ(ふさぐ)to stop up, to close up [C1] 塞がる(ふさがる)to be closed, to be blocked
[C2] ぶつける to hit (e.g. one’s head), to strike [C1] ぶつかる to strike against, to collide with
[C2] ぶら下げる to hang, to suspend, to dangle [C1] ぶら下がる to hang from, to dangle, to swing
[C2] 減らす(へらす)to abate, to decrease, to diminish [C1] 減る(へる)to decrease (in size or number)
[C2] 解く(とく)to untie, to unfasten, to unwrap [C1] 解ける(とける)to come untied, to come apart
[C2] 曲げる(まげる)to bend, to crook, to bow [C1] 曲がる(まがる)be bent, be curved, be crooked
[C2] 混ぜる(まぜる)to mix, to stir, to blend [C1] 混ざる(まざる)to be mixed, to be blended with
[C2] 混ぜる(まざる)to mix, to stir, to blend [C1] 混じる(まじる)to be mixed in with, to blend with
[C2] まとめる to collect, to put (it all) together [C1] まとまる to be collected, to be settled
[C2] 回す(まわす)to turn/rotate (something) [C1] 回る(まわる)to turn, to revolve
[C2] 向ける(むける)to turn towards, to point [C1] 向く(むく)to face
[C2] 儲ける(もうける)to profit, to get, to earn, to gain [C1] 儲かる(もうかる)to be profitable, to yield a profit
[C2] 燃す(もす)to burn [C1] 燃える(もえる)to burn, to get fired up
[C2] 燃やす(もやす)to burn [C1] 燃える(もえる)to burn, to get fired up
[C2] 戻す(もどす)to put back, to return, to give back [C1] 戻る(もどる)to turn back (e.g. half-way)
[C2] 破く(やぶく)to tear, to violate, to defeat [C1] 破ける(やぶける)to get torn, to wear out
[C2] 破る(やぶる)to tear, to break, to destroy [C1] 破れる(やぶれる)to get torn, to tear, to rip
[C2] 茹でる(ゆでる)to boil (something in hot water) [C1] 茹る(ゆだる)to get boiled
[C2] 汚す(よごす)to pollute, to contaminate [C1] 汚れる(よごれる)to get dirty, to become dirty
[C1] 寄る(よる)to approach, to draw near [C2] 寄せる(よせる)to come near, to let someone approach
[C2] 分ける(わける)to divide (into), to split (into) [C1] 分かれる(わかれる)to branch, to fork, to diverge
[C2] 割る(わる)to divide, to cut, to break [C1] 割れる(われる)to break, to be smashed, to split
[C2] 合わす(あわす)to match (rhythm, speed, etc.) [C1] 合う(あう)to come together, to merge
[C2] 当てはめる(あてはめる)to adapt, to apply [C1] 当てはまる(あてはめる)applicable to, to apply (a rule)
[C2] 余す(あます)to leave (over), to spare [C1] 余る(あまる)to reamin, to be left over
[C2] 改める(あらためる)to change, to alter, to revise [C1] 改まる(あらたまる)to be renewed
[C2] 現す(あらわす)to reveal, to show, to display [C1] 現れる(あらわれる)to appear, to come in sight
[C2] 生かす(いかす)to make (the best) use of [C1] 生きる(いきる)to live, to exist
[C2] 痛める(いためる)to hurt, to injure, to cause pain [C1] 痛む(いたむ)be hurt, be damaged
[C2] 浮かべる(うかべる)to float [C1] 浮かぶ(うかぶ)be afloat, to rise to surface, to come to mind
[C2] 受ける(うける)to receive, to get [C1] 受かる(うかる)to pass (examination)
[C2] 動かす(うごかす)to move/shift (something) [C1] 動く(うごく)to move, to shift
[C2] 埋める(うめる)to bury (e.g. in the ground) [C1] 埋まる(うまる)to be buried, to be surrounded
[C2] 産む(うむ)to give birth, to deliver [C1] 産まれる(いまれる)to be born
[C2] 植える(うえる)to plant, to grow, to raise [C1] 植わる(うわる)to be planted
[C2] 遅らす(おくらす)to delay [C1] 遅れる(おくれる)to be late, to be delayed
[C2] 収める(おさめる)to paye, to make an offering [C1] 収まる(おさまる)to be in one’s place, to be installed
[C2] 欠く(かく)to be short of..., to lack [C1] 欠ける(かける)to be chipped, to be damaged, to be broken
[C2] 固める(かためる)to harden, to freeze, to strengthen [C1] 固まる(かたまる)to harden, to solidify
[C2] 傾ける(かたむける)to incline, to lean, to tip, to tilt [C1] 傾く(かたむく)to incline toward, to slant
[C2] 叶える(かなえる)to grant (request, wish) [C1] 叶う(かなう)to come true (wish)
[C2] 被せる(かぶせる)to cover (with something) [C1] 被さる(かぶさる)to hang over, to cover
[C2] 絡める(からめる)to arrest [C1] 絡まる(からまる)to be entwined, to be involved
[C2] 絡める(からめる)to arrest [C1] 絡む(からむ)to entangle, to entwine
[C2] 涸らす(からす)to dry up, to exhaust [C1] 涸れる(かれる)to dry up(spring, pond, etc.)
[C2] 枯らす(からす)to let dry, to kill (vegitation) [C1] 枯れる(かれる)to wither (of a plant)
[C2] 乾かす(かわかす)to dry (clothes, etc) [C1] 乾く(かわく)to get dry
[C2] 傷つける(きずつける)to wound, to injure [C1] 傷つく(きずつく)to be wounded, to get injured
[C2] 切り替える(きりかえる)to change, to exchange, to convert [C1] 切り替わる(きりかわる)to change completely, to switch to...
[C2] 腐らす(くさらす)to spoil, to rot, to corrode [C1] 腐る(くさる)to rot, to go bad, to decay
[C2] 苦しめる(くるしめる)to torment, to pain, to inflict [C1] 苦しむ(くるしむ)to suffer, to groan, to be worried
[C2] 焦がす(こがす)to burn, to scorch, to singe [C1] 焦げる(こげる)to burn, to be burned
[C2] 拗らす(こじらす)to make worse (e.g. disease) [C1] 拗れる(こじれる)to twist, to wrench, to screw
[C2] 零す(こぼす)to spill, to drop, to shed (tears) [C1] 零れる(こぼれる)to spill over, to fall out of, to overflow
[C2] 凝らす(こらす)to concentrate, to devote [C1] 凝る(こる)to grow stiff, to devote oneself to (something)
[C2] 裂く(さく)to tear, to rip up [C1] 裂ける(さける)to split, to tear, to burst
[C2] 授ける(さずける)to grant, to award [C1] 授かる(さずかる)to be awarded (e.g. a prize), be blessed with (a child)
[C2] 定める(さだめる)to decide, to establish [C1] 定まる(さだまる)to become settled, to be fixed
[C2] 冷ます(さます)to cool (e.g. from a high temperature) [C1] 冷める(さめる)to become cool (e.g. from a high temperature)
[C2] 仕上げる(しあげる)to finish up, to complete [C1] 仕上がる(しあがる);to be finished, to be completed
[C2] 茂らす(しげらす)to grow thickly, to be in full leaf [C1] 茂る(しげる)to grow thickly, to be in full leaf
[C2] 鎮める(しずめる)to appease, to suppress, to calm down [C1] 鎮まる(しずまる)to quieten down, to calm down
[C2] 沈める(しずめる)to sink, to submerge [C1] 沈む(しずむ)to sink, to go under, to submerge
[C2] 済ます(すます)to finish, to get it over with [C1] 済む(すむ)to come to an en
[C2] 擦る(する)to rib, to chafe, to strike (match) [C1] 擦れる(すれる)to be rubbed
[C2] 備える(そなえる)to furnish, to provide for [C1] 備わる(そなわる)to be furnished with
[C2] 染める(そめる)to dye, to color [C1] 染まる(そまる)to be dyed
[C2] 反らす(そらす)to bend, to warp, to curve [C1] 反る(そる)to be curved, to be arched, to bend
[C2] 逸らす(そらす) to turn something aside/away [C1] 逸れる(それる)to turn aside, to turn away
  • Transitive and Intransitive verbs --pairs pdf format
  • Transitive and Intransitive verbs --pairs video (introduced in JPN611D)