The Principles of International Law

Jeremy Bentham

Essay 4, Footnote #02
Two specific examples

Reasons for giving up Gibraltar.---

  1. The expense of the military establishment, viz. fortifications, garrisons, ordnance, recruiting, service, victualling.
  2. The means of corruption resulting from the patronage.
  3. The saving the danger of war with Spain to which the possession of the place is a perpetual provocation.
  4. The price that might be obtained from Spain for the purchase of it.
  5. Saving the occasional expense of defending it and victualling it in war.
  6. The possession of it is useless. It is said to be useful only on account of the levant trade---but,
    1. We could carry on that trade equally well without Gibraltar.
    2. If we could not, we should suffer no loss The capital employed in that trade would be equally productive if employed in any other
    3. supposing this the most productive of all trades, yet what we lost by losing Gibraltar would only be equal to the difference between the per centage gained in that trade and the per centage gained in the next most productive trade.
    4. For, We could still do as the Swedes, Danes, Dutch, \& c., and as we did before we had possession of Gibraltar.

Reasons for giving up the East Indies:---

  1. Saving the danger of war.
  2. Getting rid of the means of corruption resulting from the patronage, civil and military.
  3. Simplifying the government.
  4. Getting rid of prosecutions that consume the time of parliament, and beget suspicion or injustice.
  5. Preventing the corruption of the morals of the natives by the example of successful rapacity.

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PIL, Essay 4 A Plan for an Universal and Perpetual Peace.