With reference to constitutional law, heredity succession to the throne is established, to prevent the competition of many pretenders. It is the principal exception to the principle, and the most easily justified.

Another species of inheritance, of which the Egyptians had given an example, and which the Indians have adopted, has found admirers even in our day. I refer to hereditary professions in particular families,---where they can neither have two, nor change their first. ``Par ce moyen'', says Bossuet, ``tous les arts venaient à leur perfection: on faisait mieux ce qu'on avait toujours vu faire. et à quoi l'on s'était uniquement exercé dès son enfance.''---Discours sur l'Histoire Universelle.

Robertson in his Historical Researches respecting India, has warmly approved the institution of castes, and hereditary professions. He allows, hoverer, that this system may hinder the exertions of genius. ``But the arrangements of civil governments'', says he, ``are made, not for what is extraordinary, but for what is common; not for the few, but for the many.''---Appendix

If we look at single art in Europe---that of painting, for instance---its history will show, that very few artists have been born in a painting room. Among a a hundred of the most celebrated painters, it will be found that Raphael alone had a father who handled the pencil. ``Invito patre sidera verso'', was the device of the illustrious Bernoulli who could only study astronomy in secret, and in opposition to the authority of his father.---Dumont.

RR Book 1 Chapter 15