The principles thus laid down by Mr. Bentham are susceptible of great diversity of application. When Mr. Whitbread brought into parliament his bill for the establishment of schools for the education of the poor, I flattered myself that I had discovered one instance to wbich they might very readily be applied; and, in a letter addressed to Sir Samuel Romilly, from which the following paragraphs are extracted, I explained my ideas upon the subject. It will be perceived, that the whole plan depends upon the principles laid down in this chapter:---
``Mr. Whitbread has been fully aware of the necessity of superintendence in respect to the masters,---and he has proposed to commit it to the clergymen and justices of the peace ; but it is not difficult to foresee, that this burthensome superintendence will be inefficacious.' No good will be effected unless the interest of the master be constantly combined with all parts of his duty. The only method of accomplishing this, consists in making his reward depend upon his success; in giving him no fixed salary; in allowing him a certain sum for each child, payable only wben each child has learned to read;---in a word, in paying him, as workmen are sometimes paid, by the work done.
``When he receives a fixed salary, the master has only a slight interest in the pro gress of his pupils. If he act sufficiently well to prevent his being discharged, this is all that can reasonably be expected.
``If he receive no reward till the service be performed, he has a constant interest in performing it quickly. He can relax his exertions only at his own expense. There is no longer any necessity for superintendence. Th master will himself seek to improve the mode of instruction, and to excite the children to emulation. He will be disposed to listen to the advice, and to profit by the experience of others.
``When he receives a fixed salary, every new scholar increases the trouble of the matter, diminishes his exertions, and dispose him to complain. Upon the plan which I propose, it is the master who will stir up the negligent parents; it is he who will become the servant of the law. Instead of complaining that be has too many pupils, be will only complain if he have too few. Should he have three or four hundred, or even as many as Mr. Lancaster, like him he would find the means of attending to them all; he would employ the most forward in instructing those who were less advanced, &c. &c.
``Should a negligent or incapable master be appointed, he would be forced to quit his place. Substitute for this plan, examinations, depositions, and decisions, and see what would be the consequence.
``There would be no difficulty in the execution of this proposed plan. It would be stifficient that twice or thrice in the year, the clergyman, and certain justices of the peace, or other persons of consequence, who Were willing to promote so useful a work, should meet together for two or three hours at the school-house. The examination of each scholar would not occupy more than half a minute. The master himself might be trusted for selecting only such as were capable of undergoing the test, and an honorary would thus be added to his pecuniary reward, by the publicity given to his success.''---Dumont.RR Book 2 Chapter 2